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Chapter 16 Section 4-5 “The Birth of the Republican Party”

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1 Chapter 16 Section 4-5 “The Birth of the Republican Party”

2 A New Party and a New Face A new political party came into being after the Dred Scott decision. People who wanted to stop slavery in the west formed the Republican Party. A new face emerged in the national spotlight: Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln was born in a log cabin in Kentucky to a very poor family. He worked hard his entire childhood, and he educated himself. He owned several businesses, and became a well known lawyer in Illinois. Because Lincoln had come from such meager beginnings, and because he was such a good speaker people really seemed to like Lincoln.

3 Lincoln Douglas Debates In 1858, Lincoln (republican) ran for senator against Stephen Douglas (Democrat). It was well known that Stephen Douglas planned on running for president, so this small senatorial election got a national spotlight. Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates, and Douglas reluctantly agreed. They argued about the spread of slavery. Douglas wanted things to be solved by popular sovereignty, and Lincoln wanted to keep slavery out of the territories all together. Lincoln was not an abolitionist, though. He simply wanted to stop the spread of slavery. He did not want to end it in states where it already existed.

4 Stephen Douglas Wins…Kind Of Douglas won the election by a slim margin. Still, Lincoln was a winner too. He was now known throughout the country. Two years later, the two rivals would again meet face to face- both seeking the office of President. In 1860, when they met again, the republican party had become very strong in the north. This time, Lincoln beat Douglas. In just a few years Abraham Lincoln had taken himself from being slightly well-known in Illinois to winning the presidency.

5 John Brown’s Raid After leading attacks in Kansas, John Brown headed east. In 1859, he led a group of followers, including 5 African Americans, to Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. Brown attacked a federal arsenal. His plan was to take the weapons and give them to slaves to use against their owners. Although he did capture the arsenal, no slaves came for weapons so John Brown was captured.

6 Tried for Treason After being captured, John Brown was tried for treason. Most people, both from the North and South, thought his plan was crazy. At his trial, he sounded completely normal and sane. He was found guilty, and punished to death. Northerners considered him a martyr and hero, because he was willing to die for what he believed. Southerners thought he was a crazy murderer and did not understand why the Northerners supported him.

7 The Election of 1860

8 The Southern Backlash To many southerners, Lincoln’s election meant that the South no longer had a voice in national government. They believed the president and congress were now set against their interests- especially slavery. The south felt threatened. They believed that it would only be a matter of time before the north tried to end slavery altogether. Many believed that their only choice now was to secede from the US, and form their own country. Most southerners believed that they had every right to secede. They thought the north was violating their rights, and that gave them the right to leave the US. By February of 1861, South Carolina, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas had also seceded. The seven states formed the Confederate States of America.

9 The Civil War Begins The seceded states began taking over federal buildings like forts and post offices. Lincoln had to make a decision quickly. The war started at Fort Sumter, South Carolina. When the union commander in charge of the fort refused to surrender, the confederate soldiers fired on the fort. The union troops soon ran out of ammunition, and had to surrender the fort. When confederate troops shelled Fort Sumter, people in Charleson gathered on their rooftops to watch. To many, it was like a fireworks show. No one knew that the fireworks marked the start of a civil war that would last four terrible years.

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