Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1, Lesson 3 EQ: What were the events that led up to the Civil War?"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 1, Lesson 3 EQ: What were the events that led up to the Civil War?
11 free states and 11 slave states Each state had 2 US senators So the senate was balanced
1819-Missouri asked for statehood as a slave state Northern states-did not want Missouri to be admitted as a slave state Southern states-wanted Missouri to be a slave state
John C. Calhoun (S.C)-a leader of the southerners in the Senate Calhoun believed in states’ rights-the idea that states have the right to make decisions about issues concerning them. Calhoun felt slavery should be legal if a state’s citizens wanted it to be.
Senator Henry Clay (Kentucky)-Known as the “Great Compromiser” proposed a solution called the Missouri Compromise 1820, Missouri was admitted as a slave state, and Maine was admitted as a free state. 24 states, evenly balanced between free and slave states Missouri Compromise line—new north of the line would be free states and south of this line could allow slavery.
US had gained California from the Mexican War and wanted to join the US as a free state Calhoun did not like this Henry Clay proposed another compromise
He proposed that California be accepted as a free state and the North should agree to pass the Fugitive Slave Law. Fugitive Slave Law—said that escaped slaves had to be returned to their owners, even if they had reached Northern states where slavery was not allowed.
Also stated that slavery be allowed in new territories if the people living there voted for it. Was made to keep the North and South from splitting over slavery.
1854, Stephen Douglas proposed that Nebraska be slit into two territories: Nebraska Territory (north) Kansas Territory (south) Both territories were north of the Missouri Compromise line (free states)
Senator Douglas suggested a compromise Congress passed the law that said people of each territory decide whether it should be free or slave. This created more problems
Majority vote would decide whether Kansas would be free or slave People from the north and the south settled in Kansas (remember neighboring Missouri was a slave state)
The people of Kansas voted for slavery, but many who voted were not Kansans. Northerners claimed the vote to be illegal Fighting broke out in Kansas Territory
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Dred Scot Case John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry, Virginia
Publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin By Harriet Beecher Stowe 1852 Describe the cruelties of slavery
Dred Scott An enslaved African American from Missouri Scotts owner had taken him to Illinois, a free state, and to Wisconsin, a free territory, and back to Missouri, a slave state Scott’s owner died Scott went to court claiming he was a free man because he lived in a free state
US Supreme Court 1857 the court said Scott “had no rights” and he was not a citizen He was considered property
John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry, Virginia An Abolitionist who led attacks on pro- slavery people in Kansas He made plans to attack slave owners in Virginia He needed weapons, so he planned to steal them from the army’s arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia Brown and his men were taken prisoner, and Brown was sentenced to death
Republican Abraham Lincoln-Republican candidate Against slavery “The Rail Splitter” because he was young, he split logs with an axe to make the rails of fences
Democrat Stephen Douglas “Little Giant”— although he was short, he was a giant when it came to making speeches that changed people’s ideas States’ rights “Each state…had a right to do as it pleases on … slavery.” Douglas won the election this time. But within 2 years Lincoln becomes the Republican candidate for president.
1860 Democratic Party split: Northern Democrats—Stephen Douglas Southern Democrats—John Breckinridge Republicans chose Lincoln Lincoln won the election
1820—Congress passed the Missouri Compromise 1850—The Fugitive Slave Law was passed as part of the Compromise of 1850 1857—In the Dred Scott case, the Supreme Court ruled that slaves were not citizens and had no rights, even in free states 1860—Abraham Lincoln was elected President without any Southern support.