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Chapter 1, Lesson 3 EQ: What were the events that led up to the Civil War?

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1, Lesson 3 EQ: What were the events that led up to the Civil War?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1, Lesson 3 EQ: What were the events that led up to the Civil War?

2  11 free states and 11 slave states  Each state had 2 US senators  So the senate was balanced

3  1819-Missouri asked for statehood as a slave state  Northern states-did not want Missouri to be admitted as a slave state  Southern states-wanted Missouri to be a slave state

4  John C. Calhoun (S.C)-a leader of the southerners in the Senate  Calhoun believed in states’ rights-the idea that states have the right to make decisions about issues concerning them.  Calhoun felt slavery should be legal if a state’s citizens wanted it to be.

5  Senator Henry Clay (Kentucky)-Known as the “Great Compromiser” proposed a solution called the Missouri Compromise  1820, Missouri was admitted as a slave state, and Maine was admitted as a free state.  24 states, evenly balanced between free and slave states  Missouri Compromise line—new north of the line would be free states and south of this line could allow slavery.

6  US had gained California from the Mexican War and wanted to join the US as a free state  Calhoun did not like this  Henry Clay proposed another compromise

7  He proposed that California be accepted as a free state and  the North should agree to pass the Fugitive Slave Law.  Fugitive Slave Law—said that escaped slaves had to be returned to their owners, even if they had reached Northern states where slavery was not allowed.

8  Also stated that slavery be allowed in new territories if the people living there voted for it.  Was made to keep the North and South from splitting over slavery.

9  1854, Stephen Douglas proposed that Nebraska be slit into two territories:  Nebraska Territory (north)  Kansas Territory (south)  Both territories were north of the Missouri Compromise line (free states)

10  Senator Douglas suggested a compromise  Congress passed the law that said people of each territory decide whether it should be free or slave.  This created more problems

11  Majority vote would decide whether Kansas would be free or slave  People from the north and the south settled in Kansas (remember neighboring Missouri was a slave state)

12  The people of Kansas voted for slavery, but many who voted were not Kansans.  Northerners claimed the vote to be illegal  Fighting broke out in Kansas Territory

13  Uncle Tom’s Cabin  Dred Scot Case  John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry, Virginia

14  Publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin  By Harriet Beecher Stowe  1852  Describe the cruelties of slavery

15  Dred Scott  An enslaved African American from Missouri  Scotts owner had taken him to Illinois, a free state, and to Wisconsin, a free territory, and back to Missouri, a slave state  Scott’s owner died  Scott went to court claiming he was a free man because he lived in a free state

16  US Supreme Court  1857 the court said Scott “had no rights” and he was not a citizen  He was considered property

17  John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry, Virginia  An Abolitionist who led attacks on pro- slavery people in Kansas  He made plans to attack slave owners in Virginia  He needed weapons, so he planned to steal them from the army’s arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia  Brown and his men were taken prisoner, and Brown was sentenced to death

18  Republican  Abraham Lincoln-Republican candidate  Against slavery  “The Rail Splitter” because he was young, he split logs with an axe to make the rails of fences

19  Democrat  Stephen Douglas  “Little Giant”— although he was short, he was a giant when it came to making speeches that changed people’s ideas  States’ rights  “Each state…had a right to do as it pleases on … slavery.”  Douglas won the election this time.  But within 2 years Lincoln becomes the Republican candidate for president.

20  1860  Democratic Party split:  Northern Democrats—Stephen Douglas  Southern Democrats—John Breckinridge  Republicans chose Lincoln  Lincoln won the election

21  1820—Congress passed the Missouri Compromise  1850—The Fugitive Slave Law was passed as part of the Compromise of 1850  1857—In the Dred Scott case, the Supreme Court ruled that slaves were not citizens and had no rights, even in free states  1860—Abraham Lincoln was elected President without any Southern support.

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