3United States Population, 1860 THE NORTHTHE SOUTH
4A Look at the Viewpoints of Slavery THE NORTHMost of the people were farmers, but manufacturing was popularSaw slavery as unjust and cruelMost immigrants did all of the work and conditions were terrible, but people were free.THE SOUTHMost of the people were farmers and cotton was the major crop.Saw slavery as fair and a necessary part of lifeAll slaves were bought and sold by slave owners and had no freedom .
5Attempts to Resist Slavery In 1808, Congress made importing slaves illegal. But slavery still continued.Slave rebellions began to increase.The most famous was the rebellion of Nat Turner.Frederick Douglass who was born as a slave spoke out against slavery. He became a major leader in helping to end slavery.
6“Let Us Free!”Although slavery increased in the South, over 400,000 African Americans were living in the U.S.Many were freed in the North by their masters or by buying their freedom.Even though slaves were free, they still faced prejudices.In order to deal with the unfair treatment, ex-slaves set up organizations. (churches and communities)
7Conflicts Between the States The different economies in the North and South led to disagreements between the states about tariffs.Tariffs are taxes on imported goods.When the prices of goods went up, southerners blamed it on tariffs and the North.
8States’ RightsOne southerner, John C. Calhoun thought that the government did not have the right to create tariffs. Therefore, he argued for states’ rights.States’ rights is the idea that states, not the federal government, should make the final decision about matters that affect them.This argument led to sectionalism.Sectionalism is loyalty to one part of the country and not the other.
9The Fight for Equality The Struggle for Freedom Lesson 2
10The Abolitionists An abolitionist is someone who works to end slavery. William Lloyd Garrison: Began the newspaper The Liberator that spoke out against slavery.Angelina and Sarah Grimke’: First women to speak publicly against slavery.
12The Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was a system of secret routes that escaping slaves followed to freedom.The Underground Railroad ran with the help of people who believed slavery was wrong.
13Harriet Tubman Nicknamed Moses “Conductor” on the Underground Railroad Escaped slaveryFreed more than three hundred slaves
14Women Speak OutWomen did not have many rights in the 1800’s. They could not vote, own land, and many colleges were closed to women.To protest, women gathered in Seneca Falls, NY to have a convention.The Seneca Falls convention was led by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Stanton.
15“Ain’t I A Woman?”Sojourner Truth spoke out against the evils of slavery through speeches, books, and poetry.Her most famous speech was “Ain’t I a Woman?”
17Missouri CompromiseTo keep a balance between slave states and free states, Congress passed the Missouri Compromise.The compromise created an imaginary line from east to west. All states north, except for Missouri, were free. All states south were slave states.
19Congress CompromisesAfter Missouri joined, California wanted to join too.The Compromise of 1850 would allow California to join the union as a free state but in return the free states had to observe the Fugitive Slave Law.The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 would require police in free state to capture slaves escaping from slave states.
20Kansas-Nebraska ActThis law allowed Kansas and Nebraska territories to decide for themselves if they wanted to allow slavery.Most of the farmers opposed slavery and started the Republican Party.Abraham Lincoln was apart of this party.
21Popular SovereigntyPopular sovereignty is the right of people to make political decisions for themselves.As a result the United States of America was made up of free states and slave states.Free states did not permit slavery.Slave states permitted slavery.
22Uncle Tom’s Cabin Book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Written to protest the Fugitive Slave LawBecause of this book, many were moved to fight against slavery.
23Dred Scott DecisionDred Scott was a slave that wanted the Supreme Court to give him his freedom because he had lived with his owner in a free state.The Supreme Court ruled against Scott and stated that slaves were property.
25John Brown’s RaidJohn Brown was an abolitionist who decided to fight slavery on his own.He began to attack a U.S. Army post in Harpers Ferry, Virginia.Although many saw him as a hero, he was caught, tried, and hung for trying to destroy the southerners’ way of life.
27SecessionBecause of the disagreements over slavery and abolitionists, such as John Brown, committing violent acts, many southerners believed that the only way to protect their states’ rights was to secede from the Union.Secession is when part of a country leaves or breaks off from the rest.
28A Divided NationPrior to the southern states seceding, Abraham Lincoln was elected president.To southerners, Lincoln being elected as president was a disaster.Some southern states even failed to put his name on the ballot.Lincoln being elected as president was a major reason why the southern states began to secede.
29Secession BeginsSouth Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union.After them, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Texas, and Louisiana did as well.On February 4, 1861, delegates from these states met to form their own confederation.They called themselves the Confederacy States of America. Jefferson Davis was their president.
30The War Between the States The Civil War began because the South wanted to secede from the Union.On April 12, 1861, the Civil War began at Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina.The war was between the Union (North) and the Confederacy (South).The Confederacy fired first.After 34 hours of fighting, the Union surrendered.A civil war is a war between two groups or regions within a nation.