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What is morphology? The study of internal structure of words The rules for combining morphemes into words.

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Presentation on theme: "What is morphology? The study of internal structure of words The rules for combining morphemes into words."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is morphology? The study of internal structure of words The rules for combining morphemes into words

2 What do you know when you know a word? “bagonize” “to wait anxiously for your bag at the airport carousel” Pairing sounds with meaning Information in our mental dictionary (lexicon) for each word: Pronunciation—[bægәnayz] Meaning

3 Grammatical category (noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition etc.) –He bagonized for a long time. –*The bagonize is gone

4 What is a morpheme? The smallest meaningful unit of language It cannot be further analyzed into smaller meaningful parts It has a relatively stable meaning

5 Examples: Talk Talks = talk + s Talked = talk + ed Talking = talk + ing Teach Teachers = teach + er + s Teaches = teach + es Teaching = teach + ing

6 Different types of morphemes Types of morphemes: Free morphemes: Mousecarbookman girl

7 Bound morphemes: re- in remove -ive in active -ous in famous pre- in premature

8 Root/stem: the basic or the core form in a word with more than one morpheme demoralize de + moral + ize Moral is a root/stem

9 Affixes: bound morphemes that are not a root/stem Prefixes: affixes that precede a root de- in demoralize in- in incurable

10 Isthmus Zapotec, a language spoken in Mexico: zigi“chin”kazigi“chins” zike“shoulder”kazike“shoulder” diaga“ear”kadiaga“ears” ka + zigi ka- (a prefix)

11 Suffixes: affixes that follow a root -ize in demoralize -ed in walked

12 Turkish: dur “to stop” durak “stopping place” bat “to sink” batak “sinking place” (swamp) dur + ak -ak (a suffix)

13 Infixes: affixes inserted inside the root Tagalog, one of the languages spoken in the Phillipines: –basa“to read”bumasa“Read!” –tawag“to call”tumawag“Call!” –sulat“to write”sumulat“Write!”

14 Circumfixes (discontinuous) : affixes placed around the root

15 Inflectional: affixes that mark general grammatical meanings (plural, tense, gender, comparison) Derivational: affixes that often change category (part of speech)

16 Content and function morphemes Content morphemes: express informational content Independent of the grammatical system of a language Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs Cups, red, jump, slowly

17 Open-class morphemes –New morphemes can be easily added to this class Nuke, dork, jerk,

18 Function morphemes express syntactic relationships between elements in a sentence

19 Prepositions: on, in, at, with, from Pronouns: he, she, her, him, my Articles: the, a, an Conjunctions: and, but, because, unless Jumped off a wall John and Mary They love their cats John likes a woman John like a woman John likes woman

20 Closed-class morphemes—essentially closed to new members

21 Lewis carroll’s “Jabberwocky” ‘Twas brillig and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogroves, And the mome raths outgrabe.

22 Inflectional morphology: Creates the forms of the same word Generally productive Generally regular Provides grammatical information (person, number, gender, case, tense)

23 Talkremoveblog Talksremovesblogs Talkedremovedblogged Talkingremovingblogging

24 Talkeatgoam Talkseatsgoesis Talkedatewentwas Talkedeatengonebeen Talkingeatinggoingbeing

25 Derivational affixes: Creates new words but retain the syntactic category -hood added to a noun creates a noun child, childhood woman, womanhood priest, priesthood

26 -ster added to a noun creates a noun gang, gangster prank, prankster

27 Derivational affixes change lexical (syntactic) category change: solidsolidifyadjective  verb governgovernmentverb  noun sublimesublimityadjective  noun famefamousnoun  adjective

28 Some derivational affixes in English: -iveadded to a verbto give an adjective actactive sedatesedative re-added to a verb to give a verb moveremove doredo

29 -aladded to a nounto give an adjective universeuniversal institutioninstitutional -enadded to an adjectiveto make a verb redredden lightlighten darkdarken

30 de-added to a verb to make verb moralizedemoralize toxifydetoxify

31 Irregular: ate and gone are irregular forms—some relation to the basic sounds of the root. Suppletion: a special kind of irregularity—no relation between the root and the irregular form Went and am, is, was Good, better, best Badworse

32 Person: Present tense: Person SingularPlural 1‘I eat’‘We eat’ 2‘you (sg.) eat’‘you (pl.) eat’ 3‘he, she eats’‘they eat’

33 Number: Nepali: manche‘man’mancheharu ‘men’ keta‘boy’ketaharu‘boys’

34 Gender: Spanish: un amigo americano‘An American friend (male)’ una amiga americana‘an American friend (female)”

35 Nepali: ramro keta beautiful boy “a beautiful boy” ramriketi beautifulgirl “a beautiful girl”

36 Case: Indicates noun’s relation to verbs (subject, direct object, indirect object) John gave Mary his sister’s old bicycle. jonlemerilai uskodidiko purano saikal diyo

37 ramle harilai kitab diyo ram-subhari-objbook gave Ram gave a book to Hari.

38 guma ‘man’ singularplural subjectgumaguman possessivegumangumena indirect object gumangumum direct objectgumanguman

39 Tense: uslebhatkhancha He-subjriceeat-third person present tense ‘He eats rice.’ usle bhatkhayo eat-third person past tense ‘He ate rice.’

40 uslebhat khanecha eat-third person future tense ‘He will eat rice.’

41 Hierarchy of morphemes in the formation of words: Words are constructed hierarchically One affix is attached to the root first Derivational morphemes attach before inflectional ones *highesness highnesses

42 unusable unlockable uncontrollably recyclable multigenerationally

43 How do we identify the lexical categories of words? Three criteria: Morphological Syntactic Meaning

44 Morphological criterion: What inflectional affixes can a word take? Noun? boyboy + s-s  ‘plural’ diamond + s disappears + s-s  ‘third person singular’ *beautifuls

45 Syntactic criterion: the boy a boy my boy My beautiful boy *my beautiful *my quickly

46 Meaning criterion: Person, place or thing

47 Verbs? Morphological criterion: jump + ing jump + s *desking

48 Syntactic criterion: will jump may jump Jump! *may desk*Desk!

49 Meaning criterion: Names an action

50 Adjectives? Morphological criterion? tall + er tall + est *jumpest*deskest*desker

51 Syntactic criterion: very tall more/most beautiful *very desk*very jump

52 Meaning criterion: Describes a noun

53 Adverbs? garbage category? Morphological criterion: fast + erfast + est

54 Syntactic criterion: Movement He thought about the project carefully. Carefully he thought about the project. He carefully thought about the project.

55 Types of morphological systems Isolating morphology: –Words are single morphemes –No derivational and inflectional morphology –Chinese and Vietnamese are good examples

56 Agglutinating morphology Words have bound morphemes Words can be easily broken into distinct morphemes

57 Inflectional morphology Words consist of several morphemes Words cannot be segmented easily into distinct morphemes Latin, Sanskrit, and Greek

58 Word-formation processes Compounding Olive oil credit card French history teacher Government document shredder

59 Compounds: Newar : jaki-cu rice dust rice flour kala-bhata wife husband ‘couple’

60 Reduplication: dheculadhedhecula ‘to lean’‘to stagger’

61 ko‘crow’ koki ‘crow and similar other things’ la‘water’ lali‘water and similar other things’ ho‘hole’ hohi

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