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Almen sproglig viden og metode (General Linguistics) IntroductiontotheStudyofGrammar CLM, Engelsk tt 1: Morphology Pieter Bruegel, Tower of Babel (1563)

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Presentation on theme: "Almen sproglig viden og metode (General Linguistics) IntroductiontotheStudyofGrammar CLM, Engelsk tt 1: Morphology Pieter Bruegel, Tower of Babel (1563)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Almen sproglig viden og metode (General Linguistics) IntroductiontotheStudyofGrammar CLM, Engelsk tt 1: Morphology Pieter Bruegel, Tower of Babel (1563)

2 The components of language study Sound Meaning Grammar Lexicon Morphology Syntax Pragmatics Semantics Phonetics Phonology

3 The components of language Sound Meaning A language is a system of cognitive procedures for - Assigning a Meaning to a sequence of Sounds - Producing a sequence of Sounds to express a Meaning

4 A Model of the Language Faculty an articulatory interface for associating sound with meaning Grammar - a computational system Structure a perceptual interface SoundMeaning an interpretive interface a cognitive interface Lexicon

5 Grammar Syntax: the structure of sentences Morphology: the structure of words

6 Rules Syntax describes the rules by which words combine into sentences Morphology describes the rules by which morphemes combine into words

7 Morphemes – the smallest units of meaning To Tom, I’m unexciting, uninteresting, and unattractive What kind of a relationship is that? An unrelationship!

8 Root, stem, base Morphology, terms Word: Lexeme, word-form, grammatical word - The shooter’s shots shot out like shooting stars Affix: prefix, suffix - The upshot of the shooting was upsetting Morpheme: Bound and free

9 Lexemes Word-forms Grammatical words SHOOTER (N) SHOOT (V) SHOT (N) shoot shooting shot shoots shooting (gerund) shooting (pres. ptc.) shot (prf.ptc) shot (past) shoots (pres) shoot (pres) shot shots shots’ (gen. pl) shot’s (gen. sg.) shots (pl) shot (sg) shooter (sg) shooters’ (gen. pl) shooter’s (gen. sg) shooters (pl) shooter shooters

10 Free and Bound Morphemes Mommy said to behave So I’m hayving as much as I can

11 Affixes: prefix and suffix Prefix un s Suffix able touch Root

12 Root = irreducible kernel of a word-form Base = reducible kernel of a word-form to which any affix may be added Stem = base when added affixes are inflectional Root, base, stem s touch Root able Base un Stem

13 Inflectional: turns a lexeme into a grammatical word Ex.: BOY + {Plural}  boys || GO + {PAST}  went Derivational: turns a lexeme into another lexeme Class-maintaining: -dom: king (N) + dom = kingdom (N) Class-changing: -ly: king (N) + -ly = kingly (A) Conversion: love (N) - love (V) Morphology, types

14 Derivational Morphology That’s strange. If a vegetarian is someone who eats vegetables- - what does that make a humanitarian?

15 Hierarchical struc- ture of words He went about the job veryunsystematically Adjective stem Prefix Adjective stem Adjective suffix Noun root Adjective stem Adjective suffix Adverb stem Adverb suffix

16 Making new words out of old Arachis hypogeae (peanut) + butyr(o) (butter) + phobia (fear)

17 Inflectional Categories and Morphology (1) NounsCategory Members Forms {-Ø | -s} Number {Singular | Plural} {-Ø | -s} Case {Nominative | Genitive} Personal pronouns Person {First | Second | Third}{I | you | he, she, it} Case {he, she | him, her | his, her(s), its} {Nominative | Accusative | Genitive}

18 Inflectional Categories and Morphology (2) Verbs Category Members Forms {{-Ø | -s} | -ed} Tense {Present | Past} {-Ø | be + -en} Voice {Active| Passive} {-Ø | have + -en} {-Ø | be + -ing} Aspect {- | Perfect} {- | Progressive} {-Ø | -s} Number {Singular | Plural} Person {First | Second | Third}{-Ø | -Ø | -s} (Agreeing categories) { -s | -Ø} Mood* {Indicative| Subjunctive} * Modality is a category with free forms as members: { can, may, must, shall, will, ought (to)}

19 Inflectional Categories and Morphology (3) Adjectives {-Ø | -er | -est} Comparison (Grading) Category MembersForms {Positive | Comparative | Superlative}

20 Typology of English Morphemes Morpheme AffixRoot -ceive -mit -fer BoundFree Prefix pre- un- con- etc. Suffix -ly -ist -ment etc. DerivationalInflectional Suffix -ing, -er, -s -s, -est, -’s -en -ed Open Class Nouns Adjectives Verbs Adverbs Closed Class Conjunctions Prepositions Articles Pronouns Auxiliaries

21 Compounds Antelope? - or - an eloping ant!

22 - A lexeme that contains more than one root Endocentric: beehive (a kind of hive), armchair (a kind of chair) Appositional: maidservant (both a maid and a servant) Exocentric: redskin (not a kind of skin), highbrow (not a kind of brow) Compounds Three main types, depending on meaning: It is always the last root that determines classmembership: - red (A) + skin (N)  N

23 That’s all for now!


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