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Architecture The art of sheltering people both physically and spiritually from the raw elements of the unaltered world Vertical Horizontal.

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Presentation on theme: "Architecture The art of sheltering people both physically and spiritually from the raw elements of the unaltered world Vertical Horizontal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Architecture The art of sheltering people both physically and spiritually from the raw elements of the unaltered world Vertical Horizontal

2 Great Pyramids at Giza -2600 BCE
Vertical format

3 Pyramid of Khufu- finished 2560 BCE- largest, oldest of Giza necropolis

4 Horizontal format- Queen Hatshepsut mortuary temple. circa 1500 BCE

5 Post & Lintel Horizontal beams laid across open space between vertical supports Limited by lack of tensile strength -withstands bending Has compressive strength- withstands crushing

6 Stonehenge, England 1800-1400 BCE: Post & lintel

7 Hypostyle Hall from courtyard temple of Amon-Mut-Khonsu, Luxor columns- 30’, 1390 BCE. Stylized marsh plants for capitals

8 Hypostyle: a large hall erected in post and lintel construction filled with columns

9 Byodo-in Temple, Japan, c
Byodo-in Temple, Japan, c. 1053: Post and lintel with bracket system in wood

10 Columns Columns- consist of a shaft, base, capital
Fluting- may be carved vertical lines on the shaft Base- may be none, stepped, or elaborately stepped Capital- uppermost section, transition from top of column to lintel

11 Greek Architectural Orders
Doric Order- simple shaft, no base, curved shape supporting a squared capital Ionic- shaft with fluting, rests on stepped base, carved scrolls on capital called volutes Corinthian- most complex, fluted column rests on a detailed, stepped base with carved, stylized acanthus leaves on the capital

12 Doric Doric column

13 Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens- 448-432 BCE- Doric Temple

14 Detail of Doric Columns

15 Ionic Ionic Column

16 Kallidrates. Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens 427-424 BCE
Kallidrates. Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens BCE. Ionic order

17 Corinthian Corinthian column

18 Maison Carree, Nimes, France-16 BCE- Corinthian order

19 Arch Construction Stresses transfer outward from center (keystone) to legs: does not depend on tensile strength of materials Round- Roman Horseshoe- Moorish Lance- pointed, Gothic Ogee arch

20 Arch types

21 Arch Construction Perfected by the Romans by 2nd c. BCE
Can define large spaces because the stress is transferred from the keystone to the legs Keystone- wedge-shaped central stone in the arch; it is inserted last & locks the other stones in place Vault- arched masonry structure that spans an interior space

22 Joined Arches Arcade- a series arches placed side by side
Tunnel vault- half-round arch extended in depth, arches placed back to back to enclose space Groin vault- formed by the intersection of two barrel vaults of equal size at right angles Ribbed vault- tunnel or groin vault in which the lines marking the diagonal intersection of the vaults are reinforced with raised masonry Dome-arch rotated 360 degrees on its vertical axis

23 Colosseum, 1st c. Roman- Arcade

24 Sens Cathedral, tunnel vault 1145-1163

25 Reims Cathedral, France 1211-1290: Groin Vault

26 Chartres Cathedral, France, 1140s- Ribbed Vaulting

27 Pantheon, Rome, CE. Dome

28 Oculus in the Dome

29 Great Stupa at Sanchi, 3rd century. Dome

30 Detail of Gateway, post and lintel

31 Dome of the Rock: 684 CE, mosaic wall

32 Arch Supports Buttress- reinforcement to the legs of an arch to prevent them from caving outward Flying Buttress- buttress designed to overcome bulk of stone by accomplishing structural ends that were light in appearance

33 Notre Dame de Paris, 1163-1250 - Buttresses

34 Notre Dame- Flying buttresses

35 Contemporary Structural Systems
Cantilever- overhanging beam or floor supported only at one end Bearing wall- the wall supports itself, the walls and the roof Skeleton frame-a framework supports the building, the walls attach to the frame forming an exterior skin

36 Balcony created by cantilevered slab, Rome

37 Frank Lloyd Wright: Falling Water, Bear Run, PA, 1935

38 Falling Water

39 Log cabin: Oslo, Norway- Norwegian Museum of Cultural History

40 Bearing wall systems: Fairbanks House, 1638, Dedham, Massachusetts

41 Louis Sullivan. Wainwright Building, 1891, Skeleton frame covered with masonry

42 Variations Skeleton frame
1. Balloon construction: When the framing utilizes wood, as in house construction 2. Steel cage construction: When the metal forms the frame, as in skyscrapers

43 Skidmore, Owings, Merrill. Sears Tower, Chicago, 1971
Skidmore, Owings, Merrill. Sears Tower, Chicago, Steel cage construction

44 Building Materials Stone- post & lintel; also combined with mortar or brick & mortar, called masonry Concrete- pre-cast concrete (cast in place using wooden forms around steel) Ferro-concrete (reinforced concrete) Wood- balloon framing or post & beam Steel: steel cage, cantilever Steel suspension (bridges, superdomes, aerial walkways) Geodesic dome

45 Stone Stone

46 Masonry Monandnock Building, Chicago, Architects: Burnam and Root. Masonry

47 Concrete Antoni Gaudi: Casa Mila, Masonry and concrete

48 Pre-cast Concrete Frank Lloyd Wright: Guggenheim Museum, NYC 1959

49 Wood Horyu-ji temple compound with pagoda and Golden Hall- Nara Japan, ca 670 CE. Wood

50 Steel Frank Gehry: Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, 2003: Steel & titanium sheeting

51 Steel Suspension Buckminster Fuller, Geodesic dome

52 Common Terms Line, forms, repetition Materials, texture Balance
Scale & proportion Color Light Space: how do the forms (walls, ceiling, stairs, entries, roof) enclose the space

53 Architectural Considerations
Structural system Context- the environment. How does the example relate to the physical environment – in contrast to or reflective of surroundings Circulation: design and flow of contiguous spaces relative to function Climate- Function- the purpose of the building Dynamics- stability, instability & movement Style- historical reference

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