Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Architecture The art of sheltering people both physically and spiritually from the raw elements of the unaltered world Vertical Horizontal.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Architecture The art of sheltering people both physically and spiritually from the raw elements of the unaltered world Vertical Horizontal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Architecture The art of sheltering people both physically and spiritually from the raw elements of the unaltered world Vertical Horizontal

2 Great Pyramids at Giza BCE

3

4

5 Post & Lintel Horizontal beams laid across open space between vertical supports Limited by lack of tensile strength - withstands bending Has compressive strength- withstands crushing

6

7

8

9

10 Columns Columns- consist of a shaft, base, capital Fluting- may be carved vertical lines on the shaft Base- may be none, stepped, or elaborately stepped Capital- uppermost section, transition from top of column to lintel

11 Greek Architectural Orders Doric Order- simple shaft, no base, curved shape supporting a squared capital Ionic- shaft with fluting, rests on stepped base, carved scrolls on capital called volutes Corinthian- most complex, fluted column rests on a detailed, stepped base with carved, stylized acanthus leaves on the capital

12 Doric

13

14

15 Ionic

16

17 Corinthian

18

19 Arch Construction Stresses transfer outward from center (keystone) to legs: does not depend on tensile strength of materials Round- Roman Horseshoe- Moorish Lance- pointed, Gothic Ogee arch

20 Arch types

21 Arch Construction Perfected by the Romans by 2 nd c. BCE Can define large spaces because the stress is transferred from the keystone to the legs Keystone- wedge-shaped central stone in the arch; it is inserted last & locks the other stones in place Vault- arched masonry structure that spans an interior space

22 Joined Arches Arcade- a series arches placed side by side Tunnel vault- half-round arch extended in depth, arches placed back to back to enclose space Groin vault- formed by the intersection of two barrel vaults of equal size at right angles Ribbed vault- tunnel or groin vault in which the lines marking the diagonal intersection of the vaults are reinforced with raised masonry Dome-arch rotated 360 degrees on its vertical axis

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32 Arch Supports Buttress- reinforcement to the legs of an arch to prevent them from caving outward Flying Buttress- buttress designed to overcome bulk of stone by accomplishing structural ends that were light in appearance

33

34

35 Contemporary Structural Systems Cantilever- overhanging beam or floor supported only at one end Bearing wall- the wall supports itself, the walls and the roof Skeleton frame-a framework supports the building, the walls attach to the frame forming an exterior skin

36

37

38

39

40

41

42 Variations Skeleton frame –1. Balloon construction: When the framing utilizes wood, as in house construction –2. Steel cage construction: When the metal forms the frame, as in skyscrapers

43

44 Building Materials Stone- post & lintel; also combined with mortar or brick & mortar, called masonry Concrete- pre-cast concrete (cast in place using wooden forms around steel) Ferro-concrete (reinforced concrete) Wood- balloon framing or post & beam Steel: steel cage, cantilever Steel suspension (bridges, superdomes, aerial walkways) Geodesic dome

45 Stone

46 Masonry

47 Concrete

48 Pre-cast Concrete

49 Wood

50 Steel

51 Steel Suspension

52 Common Terms Line, forms, repetition Materials, texture Balance Scale & proportion Color Light Space: how do the forms (walls, ceiling, stairs, entries, roof) enclose the space

53 Architectural Considerations Structural system Context- the environment. How does the example relate to the physical environment – in contrast to or reflective of surroundings Circulation: design and flow of contiguous spaces relative to function Climate- Function- the purpose of the building Dynamics- stability, instability & movement Style- historical reference


Download ppt "Architecture The art of sheltering people both physically and spiritually from the raw elements of the unaltered world Vertical Horizontal."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google