Prehistoric Architecture Nomadic: –Natural caves or portable tents made of animal skins. Settling in Fixed Locations: –Need to draw and plan the construction of dwellings –Construct permanent tents and adobe huts and modify shelters/caves with natural materials. Adobe Huts
Prehistoric Architecture Villages: –Multiple permanent dwellings in close proximity. –Need for creating public areas. –*The art and science of architecture began with the planning and construction of the first dwellings and public areas. Drew outlines in the sand or dirt. Created small stick models
(3000- 900 B.C.) –Construction Techniques: Wood was not widely available. Houses made from blocks of sundried mud and clay. Used of columns for load bearing open entrances. –Most known for its grand pyramids. Structures built for the temples and tombs of emperors. All loads are supported from the larger base below. Made of limestone or granite that were cut to fit together. Decorated with hieroglyphics and carvings
(850 B.C. – 476 A.D.) –Buildings were created to precise symmetry, mathematics and engineering. –Construction Techniques: Built of stone, granite and marble Symmetrical buildings made up of columns, entablatures and a roof. There were three main types of columns that defined Greek architecture. –Doric –Ionic –Corinthian
Greek Column (Doric) Features: –Simplest design –Originally placed directly on the ground without a pedestal or base. – Shaft is wider at the bottom. –Shaft is grooved. – Smooth, round capitals (tops). –No carvings or other ornament decorations.
Greek Column (Ionic) Features: –More slender than Doric –Stands on a base of stacked disks –Shafts are usually grooved, but can be plain –A pair of volutes (scroll- shaped ornaments) decorates the capital
Greek Column (Corinthian) Features: –Fluted (grooved) shaft –Capital decorated with scrolls, acanthus leaves, and flowers. –Ornaments on the capital flare outwards. –Very detailed
Roman Architecture Borrowed a lot of the architectural ingenuity from the Greeks. Incorporated much more ornament. Began to incorporate arches and domes into buildings. Colosseum
Roman Aqueducts Ancient Romans main architectural accomplishment. Arched tiers that helped run fresh water from the mountain sides to urban areas.
Roman Column (Tuscan) Features: –Shaft sets on a simple base. –Shaft is usually plain, not fluted. –Shaft is slender, with proportions similar to a Greek Ionic column. –Smooth, round capitals. –No carvings or other ornaments. Commonly used on military/ utilitarian buildings
Roman Column (Composite) Features: –Combines ideals of the Ionic and Corinthian columns –Very detailed and decorative on the capitals Commonly used on government/ high class buildings
Included the basic architectural ideals of the Greeks, Romans and Byzantine Empire. –Took a step back in architecture after the Roman Empire fell. –Secular and religious architecture Cathedrals and churches Castles: –Focused mainly on defense and fortification for buildings. –Cross shaped windows
Architectural History 1.What are the three kinds of columns that defined Greek Architecture? 2.What was the greatest architectural accomplishment in Roman architecture? 3.What was the dominant purpose of Medieval architecture?