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Architectural History (Prehistoric to the Rise of Civilizations) By, Mr. Yersak.

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Presentation on theme: "Architectural History (Prehistoric to the Rise of Civilizations) By, Mr. Yersak."— Presentation transcript:

1 Architectural History (Prehistoric to the Rise of Civilizations) By, Mr. Yersak

2 Objectives Gain an understanding of designing the history of architecture. Identify the factors that define prehistoric, Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Medieval architecture.

3 What are some examples of Ancient Architecture?

4 Ancient Architecture Stonehenge

5 Ancient Architecture Colosseum

6 Ancient Architecture Pyramids of Giza

7 Prehistoric Architecture Nomadic: –Natural caves or portable tents made of animal skins. Settling in Fixed Locations: –Need to draw and plan the construction of dwellings –Construct permanent tents and adobe huts and modify shelters/caves with natural materials. Adobe Huts

8 Prehistoric Architecture Villages: –Multiple permanent dwellings in close proximity. –Need for creating public areas. –*The art and science of architecture began with the planning and construction of the first dwellings and public areas. Drew outlines in the sand or dirt. Created small stick models

9 Egyptian Architecture

10 ( B.C.) –Construction Techniques: Wood was not widely available. Houses made from blocks of sundried mud and clay. Used of columns for load bearing open entrances. –Most known for its grand pyramids. Structures built for the temples and tombs of emperors. All loads are supported from the larger base below. Made of limestone or granite that were cut to fit together. Decorated with hieroglyphics and carvings

11 Greek Architecture

12 (850 B.C. – 476 A.D.) –Buildings were created to precise symmetry, mathematics and engineering. –Construction Techniques: Built of stone, granite and marble Symmetrical buildings made up of columns, entablatures and a roof. There were three main types of columns that defined Greek architecture. –Doric –Ionic –Corinthian

13 Parts of a Column

14 Greek Column (Doric) Features: –Simplest design –Originally placed directly on the ground without a pedestal or base. – Shaft is wider at the bottom. –Shaft is grooved. – Smooth, round capitals (tops). –No carvings or other ornament decorations.

15 Greek Column (Ionic) Features: –More slender than Doric –Stands on a base of stacked disks –Shafts are usually grooved, but can be plain –A pair of volutes (scroll- shaped ornaments) decorates the capital

16 Greek Column (Corinthian) Features: –Fluted (grooved) shaft –Capital decorated with scrolls, acanthus leaves, and flowers. –Ornaments on the capital flare outwards. –Very detailed

17 Roman Architecture Borrowed a lot of the architectural ingenuity from the Greeks. Incorporated much more ornament. Began to incorporate arches and domes into buildings. Colosseum

18 Roman Aqueducts Ancient Romans main architectural accomplishment. Arched tiers that helped run fresh water from the mountain sides to urban areas.

19 Roman Column (Tuscan) Features: –Shaft sets on a simple base. –Shaft is usually plain, not fluted. –Shaft is slender, with proportions similar to a Greek Ionic column. –Smooth, round capitals. –No carvings or other ornaments. Commonly used on military/ utilitarian buildings

20 Roman Column (Composite) Features: –Combines ideals of the Ionic and Corinthian columns –Very detailed and decorative on the capitals Commonly used on government/ high class buildings

21 Medieval Architecture

22 Included the basic architectural ideals of the Greeks, Romans and Byzantine Empire. –Took a step back in architecture after the Roman Empire fell. –Secular and religious architecture Cathedrals and churches Castles: –Focused mainly on defense and fortification for buildings. –Cross shaped windows

23 Architectural History 1.What are the three kinds of columns that defined Greek Architecture? 2.What was the greatest architectural accomplishment in Roman architecture? 3.What was the dominant purpose of Medieval architecture?


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