Presentation on theme: "Welcome Back! JOURNALS – next due date! CALENDAR – other upcoming events! ARCHITECTURE – PowerPoint and Notes ARCHITECTURE POSTER: Work in groups at your."— Presentation transcript:
Welcome Back! JOURNALS – next due date! CALENDAR – other upcoming events! ARCHITECTURE – PowerPoint and Notes ARCHITECTURE POSTER: Work in groups at your table Follow instructions at the end of this PowerPoint! We will work on this today and tomorrow in class!
Architecture Chapter 13: Living With Art Bad Architecture
10 Building Methods: (take note of various structures and the basics of each building method) Post and Lintel Round Arch and Vault Pointed Arch and Vault DomeCast-Iron Balloon Frame Steel Frame Suspension Reinforced Concrete Geodesic Dome
Post and Lintel 2 uprights (POSTS) support a horizontal beam (LINTELS) Most common materials are stone and wood Stonehenge - ENGLAND Parthenon - GREECE
Round Arch and Vault Developed by the Romans Enables structure to open up large spaces The opening is a perfect semicircle Use of a “keystone” in the center for support Only stable when complete Pont du Gard - FRANCE
Pointed Arch and Vault Sides of the form arch to a point Offered greater height than standard arch because of the way the weight was distributed Reinforced “ribs” provided extra strength provided extra strength
Dome Shape of a hemisphere Perfected by the Romans “Coffered” with the use of recessed rectangles to lesson weight Oculus- “eye” is the sole illumination in the Pantheon in the Pantheon Pantheon - ITALY Taj Mahal - INDIA
Cast-Iron In the 19 th century, the strength of iron offered a promise for great structural support Cast-Iron In the 19 th century, the strength of iron offered a promise for great structural support JOSEPH PAXTON JOSEPH PAXTON Commissioned for Hyde Park, London Created an Iron and Glass ceiling First modern “skeleton and skin” construction GUSTAVE EIFFEL GUSTAVE EIFFEL Built the Eiffel Tower Pure metal, no elaborate covering Initially was scoffed as an idea
Balloon Frame Balloon Frame The label of “balloon frame” was sarcastic- the general idea was that these buildings would fall down 2 x 4’s and nails used for framing Limited by size and height- material not extremely sturdy
Steel Frame Skeleton and skin construction Skyscrapers used this technique Prompted the creation of the elevator, due to the heights that elevator, due to the heights that could now be reached with buildings buildings LOUIS SULLIVAN Wainright Building St. Louis, Missouri
Suspension Commonly made of steel Often associated with bridges, although also used in buildings Weight is suspended by steel cables, supported by vertical pylons and driven into the ground Golden Gate Bridge - CALIFORNIA
Reinforced Concrete Iron rods are imbedded into concrete to strengthen it NEW ZEALAND building Sydney Opera House - AUSTRALIA
Geodesic Dome Attributed to a single individual- R. Buckmeister Fuller Based on the use of triangles that are further organized into tetrahedrons Wood, glass or plastic can be placed in the interior of the frame Any sizes of structures are possible! Epcot Center - FLORIDA R. BUCKMEISTER FULLER US Pavilion - CANADA
Modern Approaches… Green Architecture The question of whether we can create a healthier and less wasteful human habitat is at the heart of green architecture. Often involves preserving and updating existing structures – it is not always necessary to build a new one. Often working in harmony with nature – Use of renewable resources.
Maya Lin Langston Hughes Library This is a refurbished and modernized barn originally built in 1861
Fox and Fowle Architects Conde Nast Building Completed in 1999 Emphasis on biodegradable, renewable, and nontoxic materials Produces much of its own energy
Architecture Poster Project: At your tables, research your building process by finding an architect and related structure Find and document the following: Architect Name Architect Name Architect Origin (Country) Architect Origin (Country) Name of chosen structure Name of chosen structure Date your structure was built Date your structure was built One interesting fact about your architect or structure One interesting fact about your architect or structure Come up with at least one creative visual aid for your project! Come up with at least one creative visual aid for your project! Use poster board, markers, colored pencils, glue and scissors. No printed images for this- come up with a sketch or painting, or cut and paste forms to your poster board. BE CREATIVE with this one! For example- add pop- up images if you would like, or extend images beyond the border of your poster board!