Presentation on theme: "AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS. 1. They have no infinitive with TO; 2. They are not followed by TO (except ought); 3. They are followed by the infinitive; 4."— Presentation transcript:
AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS
1. They have no infinitive with TO; 2. They are not followed by TO (except ought); 3. They are followed by the infinitive; 4. They don’t take -S in the 3rd person; 5. They don’t need another auxiliary (int. and neg); 6. No participle form (continuous or passive); 7. They show an intention. They have a meaning. (functions, speaker’s attitude.
With I as the subject (permission) MIGHT I... ? MAY I... ?(Yes) certainly / of course. COULD I...? Sure CAN I... ? IS IT ALL RIGHT IF I... ? WOULD YOU MIND IF I...? No, I’d be happy to. Sure. / Okay.
With YOU as the subject WOULD YOU... ?Yes, I’d be happy to. WILL YOU... ?Yes, I’d be glad to. COULD YOU... ?Certainly. CAN YOU... ?Sure. WOULD/ DO YOU MIND...-ing... ?No, I’d be happy to
MUST present and future obligation imposed by the speaker; personal HAVE TO = NEED TO pres / past / fut = HAVE GOT TO external obligation
DO / DOES NOT HAVE TO = NEEDN’T TO lack of necessity MUST NOT prohibition Past and perfect forms: mustn’t have / needn’t have + participle didn’t have to / didn’t need to + infinitive
SHOULD = OUGHT TO suggestion from responsibility or duty HAD BETTER stronger warning or threat of possible bad consequences IF I WERE YOU I WOULD / SHOULD... WHY DON’T YOU IT’S TIME YOU (+past) MAY / MIGHT AS WELL (+infinitive)(less emphatic) SHOULD HAVE (participle) regret
BE SUPPOSED TO = BE TO express the idea that someone expects something to happen; express expectations about behaviour Be supposed to – should Be to – must strong expectations (rules, laws, orders, instructions)
Let’s + infinitive without TO (neg.= let’s + not + verb) Why don’t we / you / I...? Shall I / we... ? Could = why don’t we... Why not... ? Colloquially: - What’s wrong with... ? - What’s the matter with + noun...? - What / How about + gerund / noun... ? - Suppose I / we / you + pres. or past
Affirmative: 100% sure : He is sick. 95% sure : He must be sick (logical conclusion) 50% sure : He could be sick. -50% sure: He may be sick. He might be sick. (perhaps – a guess)
Negative 100% sure : He isn’t hungry. 99% sure : He couldn’t be hungry. He can’t be hungry. (my opinion) 95% sure : He must not be hungry. (a best guess – logical conclusion) -50% sure : He may not be hungry. He might not be hungry. (a possibility)
Affirmative: 100% sure : He was sick. 95% sure : He must have been sick. 50% sure : She could have been sick. (one possibility) -50% sure : She may have been sick. She might have been sick. (doubt)
Negative 100% sure: She wasn’t hungry. 99% sure: She can’t have been hungry. She couldn’t have been hungry. (impossible) 95% sure: She must not have been hungry. (logical conclusion) -50% sure: She may not have been hungry. She might have been hungry. (a possibility)
100% sure: He will do well in the test. 90% sure: He should do well in the exam. He ought to do well in the exam. (expectations, probably) 50% sure : He could do well. (choice) -50% sure: He may do well. He might do well. (guessing)
CAN – possibility and ability (be able to) BE ABLE TO → simple present : uncommon but possible → used with other modals COULD → Past ability WAS / WERE ABLE TO (affirm.) → one particular time in the past (could) WAS ABLE TO = MANAGED TO = SIMPLE PAST → after some effort (could) Negative : couldn’t = wasn’t/weren’t able to Future : will be able to
Used to (+infinitive) (only past habits) Be used to = be accustomed to (+noun or –ing) Get used to (+ing) (get = become) I am used to (+ - ing) = I don’t mind / I am accustomed to To use = employ Would → a regularly repeated action in the past) He would do well in the exam. Used to → a situation or action that existed in the past
Would rather / would sooner + infinitive (without TO) + than Neg. : I'd rather not Past : would rather have (done) Progressive : would rather + be + -ing Prefer + noun + to + noun Prefer + -ing + to + -ing
when the subjects are the same. if the subjects are different: I'd rather you paid cash. I'd rather you didn't paint it. I prefer hot weather to cold. = I'd rather have hot weather than cold. = I like hot weather better than cold. I prefer skiing to skating. = I'd rather ski than skate. = I like skiing better than skating.
Progressive : MUST BE WORKING (modal + be + __-ing) Perfect: COULD HAVE DONE (modal + have + past participle) MUST BE ABLE TO