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MODALS. COULD AND MAY  We can also use could and may to talk about general permission in the past.  However, we cannot use could or may to talk about.

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Presentation on theme: "MODALS. COULD AND MAY  We can also use could and may to talk about general permission in the past.  However, we cannot use could or may to talk about."— Presentation transcript:

1 MODALS

2 COULD AND MAY  We can also use could and may to talk about general permission in the past.  However, we cannot use could or may to talk about permission for a __________ action in the past. particular Instead, we use the correct form of: BE ALLOWED TO

3  When I was 10, I could play computer games when I wanted to.  Yesterday night, I was allowed to go to the disco.

4 MODALS OF POSSIBILITY  To talk about present or future possibility, we use: may, might and could, can.  I might study architecture. (weak probability)  I may pass math’s exam.  He could go to handball match. (weak probability)

5  The most common modal verb of possibility is MIGHT We can substitute may, might and could for: Maybe Perhaps Probably (not modal verbs)

6 MODALS of ADVICE  To give advice and make recommendations, we use: SHOULD OUGHT TO Which one of them is less common in speech? ought to

7 HAD BETTER You’d better not be late, or I’ll be furious!

8 MODALS of NECESSITY  The verb need (without to) is only used in negative and interrogative sentences.  Also, we can use don’t have to / doesn’t have to / didn’t have to for the same purpose.

9  In the affirmative, we use __________ to express necessity. NEED TO You needn’t do the exercises, they are not obligatory. You need to do the exercises, they are obligatory.

10 MODALS of OBLIGATION  To talk about obligation, we use the modal: MUST Or the semi modal: HAVE TO I must do my homework every day if I want to pass this course and go to university. Everyone has to wear uniform at state schools in UK.

11 PERSONAL OR GENERAL OBLIGATIONS? MUSTHAVE TO Personal obligationsgeneral obligations

12 THE PAST OF MUST IS... HAD.

13 MODAL of PROHIBITION  To express that we are not allowed to do or to say something, we use: MUST NOT MUSTN’T Smoking is not allowed here. You mustn’t smoke here.

14 MODALS of CERTAINTY  When we believe or guess that something is impossible, we use: CAN’T I can’t sing that song for I haven’t heard it before.  When we make logical deductions that are possible, we use: MUST She must be at home by now, it’s 10 pm.

15 MODALS + PERFECT INFINITIVES PAST SITUATIONS  Can’t +have + past participle We use it to express: an impossibility in the past. I can’t have made a good impression for he hasn’t phoned me yet.

16  COULD + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Used to suggest an ___________ past action, even though it is now too late. alternative You could have told me about that! I wouldn’t have asked you about that in public.

17  COULD/MAY/MIGHT + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE When we talk about something that was _________ in the past. possible He might/may/could have phoned, but we don’t know because we were in the garden.

18  MUST + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE To express a certainty or to make a logical deduction about the past. She must have known that I liked him!

19  SHOULD / OUGHT TO + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE To give an ________ about the past events, even though it is too late. I was anxious – he should have called me.

20  SHOULDN’T + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE To express: regret or criticism You shouldn’t have lied to me!

21  NEEDN’T + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Lack of necessity or obligation. I needn’t have made so many pancakes, nobody’s hungry now.

22 THANK YOU!


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