Presentation on theme: "Modals can - could will - would may - might - must shall - should."— Presentation transcript:
1Modalscan - couldwill - wouldmay might mustshall - should
2Modals used as auxiliary verb (e.g. I can go) do not show tense or subject agreement (e.g. He can go - notHe cans go)before the negative particle in not negation (e.g. I cannot go)before the subject in yes-no questions (e.g. Can you go?)take the bare infinitive verb as the main verb in a verb phrase(e.g. He can go - not He can to go or He can went)• express stance meanings (see next slides)
3Time Differences with Modals Modals referring to present and future time:canmayshallwillModals that can refer to past time:couldmightshouldwould* Note that each present/ future modal has a correspondingpast modal
4Stance meanings of Modals Permission/ ability:cancouldmaymightMeaningsPersonal meaning - permission or possibility, abilityLogical meaning - possibility
5Stance meanings of Modals Obligation/ necessity:mustshouldhave (got) toneed tobe supposed toMeaningsPersonal meaning - obligationLogical meaning - necessity
6Stance meanings of Modals Volition/ prediction:willwouldshallMeaningsPersonal meaning - volition or intentionLogical meaning - prediction
7Frequency of Modals in Academic Writing canmaywillwouldshouldmustcouldmighthave toshallThe most frequent modals inacademic writing are can, may,and will.Would, should, must, could, andmight are used but infrequently.The most infrequent modals inacademic writing are have to andshall. Shall is extremely infrequent.