Presentation on theme: "Different Ways of Presenting Grammar Presentation of Grammar via: a text/a dialogue (Example : Passive voice) a situation (Example : “used to”) a test-teach-test."— Presentation transcript:
Different Ways of Presenting Grammar Presentation of Grammar via: a text/a dialogue (Example : Passive voice) a situation (Example : “used to”) a test-teach-test approach (Example : “modals”) a guided discovery (Example: the use of “since” in a past action that is still happening today
Presentation of Grammar via a text/a dialogue Essential lexis from the text A blaze (n) A sprinkler (n) A spokesperson (n) - a person who speaks for another or for a group (an official representative)
General comprehension questions about the text Was it a serious fire? Was anyone hurt? Was anyone killed? Is the cinema still open?
Blaze at Local Cinema A fire broke out at the Odeon cinema in New Street last night. It was quickly brought under control by the staff and no-one was seriously injured. The cinema was full of children and their parents as the film “Bambi” was being shown but everyone left quickly without panic. However, ten people were taken to hospital suffering from the effects of smoke. The Odeon is owned by the Lucky Leisure Company. A spokesperson said: “Odeon cinemas are visited by thousands of people every week and we have never had a fire before. Our safety record is excellent”. However, staff said that the water sprinklers, which had only been put in the week before, had not worked when the fire started. The police are investigating and a 19-year-old man is being questioned. Staff are now cleaning up after the fire. “Part of the work has now been completed and the whole cinema will be redecorated at the weekend,” said the spokesperson. “It should be open again on Monday.”
General comprehension questions about the text (Feedback) Was it a serious fire? (No) Was anyone hurt? (10 people suffered from the effects of smoke) Was anyone killed? (No) Is the cinema still open? (Not at the moment)
Blaze at Local Cinema What does the text say about: Odeon cinemas ____________________________________________________________ a 19-year-old man ____________________________________________________________ part of the work ____________________________________________________________ ten people ____________________________________________________________ the film “Bambi” ____________________________________________________________ The water sprinklers ____________________________________________________________ the whole cinema______________________________________________________
Presentation of Grammar via a text/a dialogue ProcedureAim 1. Warmer/lead – in to the topicTo raise interest in the text 2.Pre-teach essential lexis from the text To eliminate vocabulary distractions 3. Pre-set general comprehension questions about the text To focus students on reading/listening 4. Students listen/read and answer the comprehension questions To ascertain students’ understanding of the context 5. Direct students’ attention to one example of the target language To focus students on the target language
Presentation of Grammar via a text/a dialogue ProcedureAim 6. Concept check the target language To focus students on the meaning 7. Highlight the form of the target language To give students guidance on how to build the form 8. Drill the target languageTo give students help with forming sounds and build confidence 9. Students look for other examples of target language and follow the similar procedure To consolidate the meaning, form, pronunciation, etc. 10. Continue with controlled practice
I used to drink champagne. I used to eat caviar. I used to live in a mansion. I used to drive a Ferrari. I used to go to Hawaii.
Presentation of Grammar via a situation Highlight the form Affirmative Subject + used to + bare infinitive Negative Subject + didn’t use to+ bare infinitive Interrogative Did + Subject + use to + bare infinitive?
Presentation of Grammar via a situation Stages of a presentation via a situation: Establish the context Pre teach lexis Elicit the target structure Concept check Model Choral drill Individual drills Elicit another example of the target structure Highlight the form
Presentation of Grammar via a test-teach-test approach TTT involves teacher starting the lesson with a test, to see how much the student knows or doesn’t know. This test is really a discovery stage rather than what could be perceived as an intimidating test. It can be conducted in pairs or groups to help reduce the test perspective. Stage 1 Test Gap sentences can be used, or more communicative methods such as students expressing life experiences related to the grammar point. The teacher observes what is known and not known, making a list of problem areas for later clarification. Stage 2 Teach The teacher reviews all the questions with the correct answers. The common mistakes are given focus, with additional example sentences given and elicited. This stage is basically a clarification of meaning, form, and pronunciation. Stage 3 Test The final stage is the second test. The second test is a practice session based on what the teacher has explained and clarified. Test two practice activities can involve students writing and speaking the language points taught using material they create, or it could be material that contains the wrong grammar which needs to be corrected.
Presentation of Grammar via a test-teach-test approach Stage 1 Test Match the sentences (1- 3) to the headings (a - c) 1. You mustn’t litter. 2. You must get permission to cross farmers’ fields. 3. You should have a map with you. a) advice/suggestion (it’s the right thing to do) b) obligation/duty/necessity (it’s the law) c) prohibition (it’s wrong, against the law)
Stage 2 Teach Subject + must + base form You must get permission to cross farmers’ fields. Subject + have to/ has to + base form You have to get permission to cross farmers’ fields. He has to get permission to cross farmers’ fields. Subject + should + base form You should have a map with you. Subject + ought to + base form You ought to have a map with you. Subject + mustn’t + base form You mustn’t litter.
Stage 3 Test Complete the sentences using “must”/ “have to”, “should”/ “ought to”, “mustn’t” and the verbs below: drop / recycle / hunt / work / respect / keep / ask 1. We ________________________all paper, plastic bottles and aluminium cans in our homes. 2. You ______________________ litter on the ground. 3. You ______________________ endangered species. 4. You ______________________ the elderly. 5. You ______________________ your dog on lead. 6. You ______________________ a lawyer for advice. 7. I _________________________ tonight.
Presentation of Grammar via a guided discovery ‘Guided discovery' lessons are the lessons where students are 'guided' to new knowledge or realisations by a series of questions leading from the unknown to the known in small stages. Example: To elicit the use of “since” in a past action that is still happening today. (I have lived in Moscow since 1998) ON BOARD DRAW THIS TIMELINE 1996 1998 2000 2002 now ________________________________________________________ lived in England moved to Moscow live in Moscow