Presentation on theme: "1 RUNNING a CLASS (2) Pertemuan 11-12 Matakuliah: G0454/Class Management & Education Media Tahun: 2006."— Presentation transcript:
1 RUNNING a CLASS (2) Pertemuan 11-12 Matakuliah: G0454/Class Management & Education Media Tahun: 2006
2 I. ELICITATION General Idea: Elicitation is a useful part of setting up an activity : whether it is a role play, a game, a listening task or a presentation.
3 Presentation : is the part of the lesson that will be dominated by the teacher as she introduces new material. The teacher does most of the talking while the students listen. If the students speak, it is usually to repeat what the teacher says or to answer a set of questions.
4 However, it is possible to involve the students more in the activity by asking them for their : –ideas, –information and –suggestion, getting them to contribute what they already know; and by encouraging them to guess vocabulary items or new words. This is called Eliciting.
5 ELICITING Eliciting means drawing out information, language ideas, etc from the Ss rather than having the T give them. It is a technique based on the principles that : Ss probably know a lot more than we may give them credit for; starting with what they know is a productive way to begin new work; involving people in a question and answer movement towards new discoveries is often more effective than simply giving “lectures”.
6 STEPS TO ELICITING 1.I convey a clear idea to the Students, perhaps by using pictures or gestures or questions, etc. 2.They then supply the appropriate language, information, ideas, etc. 3.I give them feedback.
7 I CAN elicit : language, ideas, feelings, Meanings, contexts, memories, etc. I CAN’T elicit : things they don’t know
8 THE VALUE OF ELICITING 1.Eliciting involves the class by focusing students’ attention and making them think and get involved in the context. This happens even if students do not know the words being elicited. So, elicitation can be used for presenting language as well as reviewing what was taught earlier. 2.Eliciting encourages students to draw on what they already know or partly know. Because of this, it is a useful technique for mixed ability classes or classes of students from different learning backgrounds, where different students know different things.
9 3.Eliciting increases the amount students talk, so as to activate the language they already know. 4.Eliciting gives teachers a chance to find out what students know and what they do not know and so adapt the presentation to the level of the class : the pace of the lesson and the length of time needed for that particular language point.
10 5.Eliciting gives students a motivating feeling of being encouraged to invest part of themselves in the context, so that what happens seems to depend partly on the students themselves. 6.Eliciting takes more time than straightforward presentation of new language, so most teachers would not try to elicit all the time, but rather use a mixture of eliciting and straight presentation
11 TECHNIQUES OF ELICITING Teacher should vary his or her questioning technique according to the difficulty of the question, letting good students answer difficult questions and directing easier questions at weaker students. In this way the whole class will be involved.
12 2.A good elicitation consists of some kind of stimulus that would automatically produce the desired language item(s) from a native speaker. This stimulus can take many forms : A picture A board drawing An OHP transparency A short piece of recorded material A gapped sentence on the board Actions, gestures or mimes Verbal explanation of a situation A combination of any of these methods.
13 3.The creation of a really suitable stimulus (esp. for elicitation of structure) will be almost impossible if the teacher has not really worked out the meaning (concept ) of the language point in question. 4.Elicitations are best kept simple, with as little teacher talk as possible. Beware of using unfamiliar vocabulary at this stage of the lesson. 5.Don’t “give the game away”. For example : pointing at a picture and asking “What’s he doing?” is NOT an elicitation of Present Continous! Any reasonably intelligent student could respond correctly to such a question, but would she necessarily really understand the meaning of what was being said ?
14 6.Not too fast. Even though the elicitation phase is usually very short ( 2-5 minutes ), don’t rush things too much : The teacher should pause after asking each question, to give students time to think and dig a little giving extra clues where appropriate. Also, if the first response you get is exactly what you’re looking for, don’t immediately say “very good!” and use this response to start the presentation because you haven’t found out how much other students know. Check to see what a few other students think, then, you can use the correct response as a starting point for your presentation.
15 On the other hand, not too slow. If the language point is new, most students won’t get it right in the elicitation phase. Don’t wait for them to produce language that they have never been taught before.
16 Conclusion Elicitation is a necessary but very difficult “art” requiring great skill and flexibility on the part of the teacher. Finding the right balance of number (6) and (7) is probably the most demanding thing of all. Clarity of thought and sensitivity towards the students’ reactions are the two most important qualities required for this difficult task.