Presentation on theme: "Modals. Modals are auxiliary verbs that are used with main verbs to give advice and express ideas like ability, necessity, or possibility. Some examples."— Presentation transcript:
Modals are auxiliary verbs that are used with main verbs to give advice and express ideas like ability, necessity, or possibility. Some examples of modals are can, might, and should. Most modals have more than one meaning. For example, can expresses possibility, ability, and permission. Phrasal modals are expressions with meanings similar to those of modal auxiliaries. They include expressions like be able to, be supposed to, and have to.
Forming Affirmative Statements with Modals in the Present Tense (modal + base V) I You He / She / It+ We They can could will would should+ eat. ought to may might must had better
Forming Negative Statements with Modals in the Present Tense (modal + not + base V) I You He / She / It+ We They cannot could not will not (won’t) would not should not+ eat. ought not to may not might not must not had better not
Remember! He may need extra time to finish his paper. She should study more. NOT He may needs extra time to finish his paper. She should studies more.
Phrasal modals with be and have change form to agree with their subjects. I am supposed to practice today. Michael has to help his parents move. John and Kim are able to do the homework.
Forming Modals in the Past Tense Present can have to / has to am / is / are able to am / is / are supposed to Past could had to was / were able to was / were supposed to
I can play the violin now, but when I was a child, I could play the piano. We had to call the police last night to report the crime. The plane wasn’t able to take off because of the snow this morning. We were supposed to study for the test last night, but we went to the movies instead.
Practice: Correct the errors in modal forms. 1.Financial aid can helps many students. 2.Desert neighborhoods has to save water. 3.You should study not with the TV on. 4.Robert have to prepare for his speech.
Forming Affirmative Statements with Modals in the Past Tense (modal + have + -en/-ed) I You He / She / It+ We They could have would have should have ought to have + eaten. may have might have must have had better have
Forming Negative Statements with Modals in the Past Tense (modal + not + have + -en/-ed) I You He / She / It+ We They could not have would not have should not have ought not to have may not have + eaten. might not have must not have had better not have
I should have stayed home last night. He must have studied a lot to get such a good grade. She may not have gotten an A on the test. We should not have skipped class on Monday.
Practice: Correct the errors in modal forms. 1.William should of traveled with us last summer. 2.Andrea should be wait at the airport when you arrive. 3.Josh should have not written that letter to this girlfriend. 4.Robin could played the piano when she was younger. 5.Norman had not to work yesterday.
Showing Ability Present and Future can be able to will be able to I can lift 50 pounds. She is able to run a marathon. He will be able to come. Past could was/were able to Last year I could lift 100 pounds. She wasn’t able to come.
Making Requests Present and Future can could would Can you help me? Could you bring dessert tomorrow night?
Showing Possibility Present and Future can may might could He might change his major. We may leave tomorrow. Past may have might have could have I could have left early, but I didn’t.
Showing Near Certainty Present and Future must John looks awful. He must be sick. Past must have The ground is all wet. It must have rained.
Asking for and Giving Permission Present and Future can could may May I ask you a question? You may use my car on Sunday.
Showing Necessity Present and Future must have to Do you have to work right now? Must you work tomorrow? Past had to She had to take the medicine.
Showing Prohibition Present and Future cannot must not Cars cannot turn right at this intersection. You must not take so many units next semester.
Showing Lack of Necessity Present and Future do not have to will not have to I do not have to take the exam. We will not have to go next time. Past did not have to They did not have to answer the question.
Giving Advice/Making Suggestions Present and Future had better (not) should ought to could can You can borrow that book from the library. We had better leave early tomorrow. Past had better (not) have should have ought to have could have You ought to have called your mother on her birthday.
Showing Expectation Present and Future be supposed to will be able to I am supposed to be in class right now. They are supposed to study tonight. Past was/were supposed to We were supposed to stay home last Friday night.
Showing Preference Present and Future would rather John would rather write an essay that take an exam. They would rather start school next fall than spring. Past would rather have I would rather have eaten dessert first.
Repeated Past Action Past would When he was younger, he would read the same book over and over again.
Practice: Correct the errors in modal use. 1.Since Carla’s surgery, she doesn’t have to eat fatty food. 2.Mohammad wasn’t here last night, but he may have been because we had a good time. 3.May you call me at home tonight? 4.We’re not sure where they went last night, but they would have been at the movies. 5.There is one research paper due. I must have completed it to pass the class.