2Modals are auxiliary verbs that are used with main verbs to give advice and express ideas like ability, necessity, or possibility. Some examples of modals are can, might, and should. Most modals have more than one meaning. For example, can expresses possibility, ability, and permission.Phrasal modals are expressions with meanings similar to those of modal auxiliaries. They include expressions like be able to, be supposed to, and have to.
3Forming Affirmative Statements with Modals in the Present Tense (modal + base V) YouHe / She / It +WeTheycancouldwillwouldshould + eat.ought tomaymightmusthad better
4Forming Negative Statements with Modals in the Present Tense (modal + not + base V) YouHe / She / It +WeTheycannotcould notwill not (won’t)would notshould not + eat.ought not tomay notmight notmust nothad better not
5Remember!He may need extra time to finish his paper.She should study more.NOTHe may needs extra time to finish his paper.She should studies more.
6Phrasal modals with be and have change form to agree with their subjects. I am supposed to practice today.Michael has to help his parents move.John and Kim are able to do the homework.
7Forming Modals in the Past Tense Presentcanhave to / has toam / is / are able toam / is / are supposed toPastcouldhad towas / were able towas / were supposed to
8I can play the violin now, but when I was a child, I could play the piano. We had to call the police last night to report the crime.The plane wasn’t able to take off because of the snow this morning.We were supposed to study for the test last night, but we went to the movies instead.
9Practice: Correct the errors in modal forms. Financial aid can helps many students.Desert neighborhoods has to save water.You should study not with the TV on.Robert have to prepare for his speech.
10Forming Affirmative Statements with Modals in the Past Tense (modal + have + -en/-ed) YouHe / She / It +WeTheycould havewould haveshould haveought to have + eaten.may havemight havemust havehad better have
11Forming Negative Statements with Modals in the Past Tense (modal + not + have + -en/-ed) YouHe / She / It +WeTheycould not havewould not haveshould not haveought not to havemay not have + eaten.might not havemust not havehad better not have
12I should have stayed home last night. He must have studied a lot to get such a good grade.She may not have gotten an A on the test.We should not have skipped class on Monday.
13Practice: Correct the errors in modal forms. William should of traveled with us last summer.Andrea should be wait at the airport when you arrive.Josh should have not written that letter to this girlfriend.Robin could played the piano when she was younger.Norman had not to work yesterday.
14Showing Ability Present and Future can be able to will be able to I can lift 50 pounds.She is able to run a marathon.He will be able to come.Pastcouldwas/were able toLast year I could lift 100 pounds.She wasn’t able to come.
15Making Requests Present and Future can could would Can you help me? Could you bring dessert tomorrow night?
16Showing Possibility Present and Future can may might could He might change his major.We may leave tomorrow.Pastmay havemight havecould haveI could have left early, but I didn’t.
17Showing Near Certainty Present and FuturemustJohn looks awful. He must be sick.Pastmust haveThe ground is all wet. It must have rained.
18Asking for and Giving Permission Present and FuturecancouldmayMay I ask you a question?You may use my car on Sunday.
19Showing Necessity Present and Future must have to Do you have to work right now?Must you work tomorrow?Pasthad toShe had to take the medicine.
20Showing Prohibition Present and Future cannot must not Cars cannot turn right at this intersection.You must not take so many units next semester.
21Showing Lack of Necessity Present and Futuredo not have towill not have toI do not have to take the exam.We will not have to go next time.Pastdid not have toThey did not have to answer the question.
22Giving Advice/Making Suggestions Present and Futurehad better (not)shouldought tocouldcanYou can borrow that book from the library.We had better leave early tomorrow.Pasthad better (not) haveshould haveought to havecould haveYou ought to have called your mother on her birthday.
23Showing Expectation Present and Future be supposed to will be able to I am supposed to be in class right now.They are supposed to study tonight.Pastwas/were supposed toWe were supposed to stay home last Friday night.
24Showing Preference Present and Future would rather John would rather write an essay that take an exam.They would rather start school next fall than spring.Pastwould rather haveI would rather have eaten dessert first.
25Repeated Past Action Past would When he was younger, he would read the same book over and over again.
26Practice: Correct the errors in modal use. Since Carla’s surgery, she doesn’t have to eat fatty food.Mohammad wasn’t here last night, but he may have been because we had a good time.May you call me at home tonight?We’re not sure where they went last night, but they would have been at the movies.There is one research paper due. I must have completed it to pass the class.