3Here are some of the modals & semi-modals couldcanshouldmightmayBe able tohave tomust
4Use We use modals and semi-modals to add meaning to the verb. We use can/could to add meaning of:1) ability: I run fast I can run fast2) permission: you can invite your friend.Could is the past form of can :I could run fast when I was young.We use must to talk about obligation :I must go to school everyday.
5We use may to add meaning of : 1) possibility: it may rain later today.2) permission: you may use my phone.We use might to add meaning of possibility:we might go out later today.We use should to add meaning of suggestion:you should study more
7Form Modals behave the same with all of the pronouns: I You can/could We may/mightThey shouldHe mustSheIt
8Rule: subject modal verb in base form Modals are always followed by a verb in its base form and come after the subject.Rule: subject modal verb in base formEXAMPLES:He can speak English vs. He speaks EnglishYou may go out .She may take the book to school.They should do their homework.We must wake up early.
9Negative form 2. We use "not“ after the modal to make negative form. EXAMPLES: He should not be late. They might not come to school.I cannot eat any more cakes.
103. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses. EXAMPLES:He will can go with us. WRONGShe must studied very hard. WRONG
12Semi-modalsMany modals cannot be used in all of the English tenses. That's why we need to know their meaning and the substitute for these modal verbs.
13Be able to We use this semi-modal to express: ability Permission use: We use “be able to” in the past, present and future tense.
14present Yes/no question: Are you able to walk? Positive: I am able to walk.Negative: I am not able to walk.Yes/no question: Are you able to walk?Wh-question: When are you able to walk?
15past positive: I was able to run. Negative: I was not able to run. Yes/No question: Were you able to run?Wh-question: Why were you able to run?
16future Positive: I will be able to run fast. Negative: I will not be able to run fast.Yes/no question: will you be able to run?Wh-question: why will you be able to run?
17have to - has to had to – will have to = it is necessary=shows obligation and giving advice.have to/has to –in the present/near futurehad to –in the pastwill have to –in the future
18Present I You have to We don’t have to They He She has to It doesn’t have to*Don’t have to/doesn’t have to: it’s not necessary
19Forming questions Yes/no questions: To form yes/no question we put the helping verb “do”/”does” in the beginning of the sentence :For example:1)you have to do your homework.Do you have to do you homework?she has to do her homework.Does she have to do her homework?
20Wh question:we add wh-word at the beginning of the yes/no question to for wh-question.For example: Do you have to do your homework?why do you have to do your homework?Does she have to do her homework?Why does she have to do her homework?
21pastI You We had to They didn’t have to He She It
22Forming questions Yes/no questions: Wh-questions: To form a yes/no question in the past tense we put the helping verb “did” at the beginning of the sentence:for example: she had to do her homework.Did she have to do her homework?Wh-questions:To form wh-question we add a wh-word at the beginning of the yes/no question:for example: Did she have to do her homework?why did she have to do her homework?
23FutureI You We They will have to He will not have to She It
24Yes/no questions:To form a yes/no question in the future tense we put the word “will” at the beginning of the sentence:for example: she will have to do her homework.will she have to do her homework?Wh-questions:To form wh-question we add a wh-word at the beginning of the yes/no question:for example: will she have to do her homework?why will she have to do her homework?