Degrees of Certainty: Present Time Affirmative Why isn’t Marcia in class? 100% sure: She is sick. 95% sure: She must be sick Less than 50% sure She may be sick She might be sick She could be sick
Less than 50% sure: Marcia couldn’t be sickMarcia can’t be sick 99% sure: 100% sure: Marcia isn’t sick 95% sure:Marcia must not be sick Marcia may not be sick Marcia might not be sick Is Marcia sick?
Degrees of Certainty: Past Time Affirmative 100% sure: Sam was swimming 95% sure: Sam must have been swimming Less than 50% sure: Sam may have been swimming Sam might have been swimming Sam could have been swimming Where was Sam?
Less than 50% sure: Sam couldn’t have been swimming Sam can’t have been swimming 99% sure: 100% sure: Sam wasn’t swimming 95% sure: Sam must not have been swimming Sam may not have been swimming Sam might not have been swimming Was Sam Swimming?
Degrees of Certainty: Future Time Affirmative 100% sure: Roadrunner will do well in the race 90% sure: Roadrunner should do well in the race Roadrunner ought to do well in the race Less than 50% sure: He may do well in the race He might do well in the race He could do well in the race
Progressive Forms of Modals Let’s enter the room quietly. The baby may be sleeping. It is silent here, the baby must be sleeping. Present
Progressive Forms of Modals Vanessa wasn’t at ULACIT last night when I was looking for her. She might have been at home resting. Progressive Past Time 50% Charlie wasn’t in class last night. He has a lot of exams this week. He must have been home studying. Progressive Past Time 95%
Ability: Can Max is strong. He can lift- up more than 100 pounds. Can is used to express physical ability. It is used with verbs of the five senses: see, hear, feel, smell and taste.
Ability: Can - Cannot Dogs can bark, but they cannot talk. (can’t) Can expresses acquired skill.
Ability: Could Max could lift-up 100 pounds but I couldn’t. Could (couldn’t) is the past form of can meaning ability.
Use of Would to Express a Repeated Action in the Past When I was a child, my father would read me a story at night before bedtime. When I was a child, my father used to read me a story at night before bedtime. Would can be used to express an action that was repeated regularly in the past.
Expressing Preference: Would Rather Would Rather I would rather go to a movie tonight than study grammar. Rather I’d rather study translation than (study) Biology.
Combining Modals with Phrases Modals Janet will be able to help you tomorrow. Tom isn’t going to be able to help you tomorrow. Incorrect: Janet will can help you tomorrow