2 II. Unifying Themes of Biology 1. The Unity of life’s diversity:- Organization & Cell Theory-The Genetic Code (DNA) & Classification2. Evolution:- Charles Darwin, Natural Selection,- Adaptations3. Interdependence:- Relationships between living things- The Environment & Ecology
3 1. Diversity and unity of life Themes of Biology1. Diversity and unity of lifethere are millions of species of organismsDiversity = Differences3
4 But how is all of life unified? All life is organized:Made of cellsAll life has DNA:The genetic code**all life has hereditary information in DNAIts is found in the cell’s nucleusIt is identical in all cells of an organism
5 Cells represent Unity because they are features that all organisms have in common. List a fewthings all these types of cells have in common.
6 Myth Busters: Is dust really mostly made up of human skin? Dust mitesThe myth household dustis mostly human skin; 70,80 or 99 per cent!The "truth“ No evidenceshows dust is mostly madeup of any one ingredient;rather, it is a potpourri of everything that is likely to be drifting around your house – skin cells, dust mites and their feces, cat dander, face powder, cigar ash, soil, pollen, insect excreta, and general industrial pollution
7 DNA- all cells have DNA -–DNA is short for Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is a large macromolecule that stores hereditary information-–DNA is short for Deoxyribonucleic acid-Double helix shape is formed by nitrogenous base pairs attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone.It’s twisted ladder shape (double helix) is about 3 feet long in a single cell
8 “Unity of Life’s Diversity” Taxonomy: the classification of organismsTree of Life: shows that all living things have descended with modification from a single common ancestor
10 Taxonomic Classification: 3 domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.6 Kingdoms: Archaea, Bacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.Further divided into smaller Taxonomic groups:phylaclassorderfamilygenusspecies
11 3 Domains Archaea -Prokaryotic cells (unicellular) -little understood, recently discovered life-probably oldest cells & found in extreme environmentsKINGDOM– ArchaeaBacteria = Prokaryotic cells (unicellular)-all the common bacteria, both good & bad-KINGDOM—Bacteria3. Eukarya = Eukaryotic cells (have a nucleus)There are four kingdoms in Eukarya* Protista * Fungi* Plantae * Animalia
12 The Tree of Life: -The relationships by ancestry among organisms Three domains-2 are prokaryotic-1 Eukaryotic
14 (2nd Theme in Biology)2. EvolutionTheory that organisms change over time, the driving force is the environment.Natural Selection- process by which adaptation is passed on to the next generation for best survival.Adaptations--are favorable traits-Ex.- cactus plantsadapted to desert
15 Science & Religion- in answer to your questions: Occasionally, the media may report on the “conflict” between religion & science- implying that one must “choose” – or that science has “replaced” religion.For most there is no conflict! Many famous scientists were Christians who used their Judeo-Christian belief in a rational God as the foundation for their study.Even Evolution is NOT contrary to personal faith.
16 Charles Darwin-English naturalist who presented compelling evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors, through the process he called natural selection.
17 Darwin’s trip around the world on the H. M. S Darwin’s trip around the world on the H.M.S.Beagle, especially the stops in South America & the Galapagos Islands were the basis for his work.
18 Darwin saw unusual things on his voyage & tried to explain them: Strange FossilsLarge tortoisesMany kinds of beaks on finches
19 Summary: 4 Main Parts of Darwin’s Reasoning 1. Overproduction- more offspring are produced than can survive2. Genetic Variation- within a population, individuals have different traits3. Struggle to Survive- individuals must compete with each other to exist.4. Differential Reproduction- Organisms with the best adaptations to environment more likely to survive & reproduce.
20 Chapter 154 Main Parts of Darwin’s ReasoningNatural Selection
21 A simple example of Natural Selection tiny fish may be able to hide under rocks and not get eaten by a predatornext generation has fewer large fish, “nature” has selected for smaller fish in that pond
22 adaptationthe ability of a species to survive in a particular ecological niche, esp. because of alterations of form or behavior brought about through natural selection22
24 Evolutiondiscuss the ideas that make up the mechanism for evolution- NATURAL SELECTION.For example:
25 Terms about Structure & Function Biology Terms: Extra Info that you will need to knowTerms about Structure & FunctionMorphology – the structure and form of an organismAnatomy – the branch of morphology that deals with internal structureStructure is almostalways related tofunction.Example- Bird beaks-shape shows howit gets food
26 3. Interdependence Biotic Factors – living organisms II. 3 Themes in Biology3. InterdependenceEcology- How organisms interact with both other organisms & the environment.Biotic Factors – living organismsAbiotic Factors - non-living part of the environment (water, temperature, soil type,etc)Ecosystems- Communities of different living species (Biotic factors)& interact with each other & their non-living environment (Abiotic factors).
27 EcologyIs the study of howorganisms interactwith each other andtheir physical environment.Environment – everything- biotic & abiotic- surrounding an organism
28 Energy Relationships -study how organisms get, use & transfer energy Sun- Source of almost all energyAutotrophs- Organisms that make their own energy (food) (photosynthesis)Heterotrophs – Organisms that obtain energy by eating other organisms
29 Food Chain & Food web in an Antarctic Ecosystem All food chains must start with aproducer (autotroph)!!!What is the difference between a food chain & a food web?
30 Note numbers of organisms: Chart: many times more producers than large carnivores
31 Ecology Levels of Organization ORGANISM -Simplest Level (1 living thing)POPULATION- All the members of the same species - that live in one place at a given time & make-up a breeding group.COMMUNITY- Includes all the interacting populations in one area.ECOSYSTEM- Includes all the living (biotic) & non-living (abiotic) factors in the environment.BIOSPHERE- Thin layer of life around earth.
33 That’s more than five children born every second! The future:Note that the human population level on planet Earth is now approaching 7 billion individuals.That’s more than five children born every second!
34 Sustainability: The ability to meet today’s needs without sacrificing the needs of future generations
35 Science & SocietyApplied Science- knowledge from biological science can be used to improve human lifeBioethics – The study of what is right or wrong as it applies to biological concerns.Biotechnology- technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicinegenetic engineering, & DNA Technology- making new forms of life by transferring genes from one organism into another- like inserting gene for enzyme Chymosin -from the stomach of calves into the DNA of both bacteria and yeasts-
36 technologyapplication of scientific research to society's needs and problems36
37 Biotechnology: Genetically engineered cheese –cheese is now cheaply made- with genetically modified yeast chymosin,(an enzyme which curdles milk, found in calves, whodrink milk, but not in normal yeast!)
38 Genetic Medical Applications Making medicine- until recently- medicine had to be collected from plants or made from chemicals. Now can make body substances like human blood clotting factors, insulin, vaccines & (HGH) HumanGrowthHormone with GM bacteria.Making body parts- may be able to clone cells & make new organs so that no rejection occurs. May be able to grow new human liver in another organism like a pig.May also be able to screen for diseases, create “designer babies”, cure cancer.
39 Gene TherapyExample: replace or repair faulty gene for cystic fibrosis.Insert a copy of good gene from healthy person into virus.Infect patient’s lungs with virus, virus delivers good gene. Now patient can make the right protein to stop accumulation of mucus & can breathe normally.Imagine being this mother of child with CF,Daily you must massage & loose mucus.Any cold could overwhelm & cause death.Now imagine what gene therapy represents.
40 Examples: Featherless chicken a controversial featherless chicken which they say is faster growing.will not need to be plucked, saving money in processing plants.they would not be suitable for cooler countries,but OK in hot climatesThere was a rumor that KFC uses these already but it is not true.
41 Fishy Strawberries Flounder is a fish that can withstand icy cold temperatures.Scientists took the gene in the fish thatProduces an antifreeze & inserted it intoa plasmid of a bacteriumThe bacterium infected the strawberry &the flounder antifreeze gene entered thestrawberry’s DNAThe new GM strawberry cells are grownInto new plants that have strawberrieswhich make a protein that keeps the fruitfrom frost damage.
42 Golden Rice is part of the solution to world hunger & malnutrition. GM foods- Golden RiceGolden Rice is part of the solution to world hunger & malnutrition.-Biofortified rice may alleviate life-threatening micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries-(decrease starvation)- Genetically modified- gene for provitamin A (β-carotene), is inserted into rice genome.
43 All living things have the same genetic building blocks DNA- deoxyribonucleic acidhas 4 nitrogenous bases which make up the “alphabet” for the genetic code.SO- the same sequence of DNA (gene) codes for an enzyme, a protein or other molecule no matter which organism that gene is in.That is the basis for Gene technology
44 BiotechnologyThere is currently much debate among scientists, politicians & environmentalist about the safety & quality of genetically modified products, especially foods.It is very likely that you have already eaten multiple products that were produced with biotechnology and/or DNA technology
45 III. The Study of Biology A. The Scientific Method Steps:1. Observation2. Hypothesis3. Prediction4. Experiment5. Data Analysis/ Conclusions6. Communication/ VerificationB. Evaluating Bias- at times, scientists have conflicts of interest. A scientist’s goal should be finding facts, not support of government agency agenda or the desired results of a pharmaceutical company.
46 Remember: Experiment terms Control group provides a normal standard against which we compare results of the experimental group.Experimental group is identical to the control group except for one factor.Variables: factors that changeTheory -a set of related hypotheses confirmed to be true many timesAn advantage of the scientific method is that it is unbiased & repeatable.
47 Controlled Experiment A control group provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results with the experimental groupAn experimental group is identical to the control group except for one factor, the independent or manipulated variable.***Other variables that may affect the outcome of the experiment should be the same in both control and experimental groups47
48 Implementing the Scientific Method The scientific method is used to solve problemsIt is not an exact processNo Experiment is a FailureIf negative results occur, a scientist can show that a certain hypothesis is not validAn experiment can be successful even if it shows that a hypothesis is not consistent with observations
49 Communicating Ideas Publishing or presenting experimental results Four Parts of a PaperIntroduction – states problem and hypothesis to be investigatedMaterials and Methods – what was used and howResults – Findings using graphs, tables, chartsDiscussion – conclusion, error sources, significance of experiment, and future needs are discussedPaper submitted for Peer ReviewErrors, conflict of interest and honesty is checkedAllows science a method to self-correct mistakes
50 Read the following passage and answer these questions with a partner: An environmental engineering firm has been called to determine why fish are dying in a local stream. A red liquid was observed leaking from a mine that while fish were dead downstream, there were no dead fish upstream from the mine.Give a possible hypothesis.Design an experiment to test your hypothesis.What is the control in your experiment.List dependent & independent variables.
51 IV. Tools & Techniques A. Microscopes 1. Types of Microscopes *Compound light microscope-shines light through a specimen(must have thin slice of object)-uses 2 lens to magnify image.*Electron microscope-SEM (scanning electron microscope)-TEM (transmission electron microscope)2. The parts of the Microscope- see hand out
52 Compound microscopes Used to magnify thin slices of specimens
53 Magnification with each lens TOTAL MAGNIFICATION=low power magnification X eye piece magnificationThe eyepiece is 10XLow power is 4XOther lens may vary- usually- 10X- 40X
54 Microscope Use: ALWAYS begin use & focus with the Carry the microscope with 2 hands-By the “arm” & one hand under the baseLook through eyepiece & keep both eyes openPlace the slide that you want to view over the aperture and gently move the stage clips over top of the slide to hold it into place.ALWAYS begin use & focus with the*Microscope on LOW Power (4X) !!!!*Make sure the stage is all the way down.!!!!!Always Begin focusing with the coarse adjustment
55 Light Microscopes The eyepiece magnifies the image. The objective lens enlarges the specimen.The stage is a platform that supports slides with specimens.The light source is a light bulb that provides light for viewing images.
56 Magnification & Resolution Magnification is the increase of an object’s apparent size.Resolution is the power to show details clearly in an image.
57 Figure 1. Relative Size of Microbes. E. M Figure 1. Relative Size of Microbes. E.M. refers to the Electron Microscope.
58 Object Size and Magnifying Power of Microscopes
59 B. Other toolsCentrifuge-spinning separation of materials in a liquid that have different densitiesAutoclave – heating chamber to disinfectChromatography -is any technique that separates different substances based on their chemical or physical propertiesElectrophoresis - is a technique for separating particles that have an electrical charge.Spectrophotometer -determines what a substance is by measuring the amount of each wavelength of light absorbed by the sample.Computers are one of the most important tools used in biology studies.
60 Electron MicroscopesScanning electron microscopes pass a beam of electrons over the specimen’s surface for better viewing the external surface of a specimen.Transmission electron microscopes transmit a beam of electrons through a thinly sliced specimen for better viewing the internal structures of a specimen.
61 C. Units of Measure SI Units Scientists use a single, standard system of measurement, called the metric system. The official name of the metric system is Système International d’Unités or SI.
62 The Metric SystemThe metric system is also called the International System of Units or SIIt is a single unified system that is used in nearly every country in the world.This includes the scientific communityThe English system uses feet, inches, pounds, and quarts.
63 Prefixes of the Metric System tera1012trillion Ggiga109billion Mmega106million kkilo1031 000thousand hhecto* 102100hundred dadeka*10110tenBASE UnitMeter-Liter-Gram1one ddeci*10-10.1tenth ccenti*10-20.01hundredth mmilli10-30.001thousandth µmicro10-6millionth nnano10-9billionth ppico10-12trillionth