Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter One: Science as a Process.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter One: Science as a Process."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter One: Science as a Process

2 Ch. 1.1 Intro to Biology & Characteristics of Life

3 SCIENCE The continuous effort to discover and increase human knowledge through research The process of observing, explaining, and understanding our world Does NOT include “supernatural” explanations

4 Biology “Bio” = life “ology” = study of The study of life (organisms)
Answers questions about the natural world: How they work How they interact with the environment How they change over time

5 Branches of Biology Anatomy: external & internal structures of organisms Ecology: interactions between organisms and their environment Cytology: structure & function of cells Botany: plants

6 5. Genetics: heredity, how traits pass from parent to offspring
6. Microbiology: “micro” = small, organisms seen with a microscope 7. Taxonomy: classification 8. Zoology: animals

7 Characteristics of Life:
Made of cells Respond to stimuli (change in enviro.) Maintain homeostasis Use energy (metabolism) Grow and develop Reproduce Change through time (evolution)

8 Homeostasis Stable internal conditions Ex: Temperature Water intake
Ex: Thermostat Water intake Food intake pH

9 Metabolism Sum of all chemical rxns that take in & transform E & materials from the environment Photosynthesis: converts light E into chemical E Cellular Respiration: converts organic cmpds into usable E (ATP)

10 Maple vs. robot toy

11 Themes in Biology & The Scientific Method

12 Ch. 1.2 Themes in Biology Diversity and Unity of Life
Interdependence of Organisms Evolution of Life

13 1. Diversity and Unity of Life
Diversity = variety of life Cell = basic unit of life Highly organized Unicellular vs. Multicellular Cell differentiation- cells become specialized


15 Unity= all living things have features in common
The genetic code; the heredity info. in DNA Contain organelles; cellular structures that carry out specific functions “Tree of Life”; has 3 main branches called domains and 6 major categories called kingdoms

16 “Tree of Life”

17 2. Interdependence of Organisms
Organisms interact with each other and the living world Area of science known as Ecology Ecosystems are communities of living species & their physical environment

18 1. Can you name some parts of an ecosystem. 2
1. Can you name some parts of an ecosystem? 2. How have humans affected the environment?

19 3. Evolution of Life Populations of living organisms change over time
Descent with modification Occurs by natural selection; organisms with more favorable traits survive a changing environment and reproduce more successfully. Adaptations are traits that improve an organisms chance of survival.

20 Ch.1.3 The Scientific Method
How problems are solved! Scientists use controlled methods to collect observable evidence to answer questions about natural phenomena YouTube - Scientific Method MTV

21 Steps of the Scientific Method
1. Define the problem. 2. Collect information. Qualitative vs. quantitative 3. Form a hypothesis. a statement that can explain a scientists observations and data Must be testable Educated guess that can be proven FALSE Written as an “if-than” statement

22 4. Test the hypothesis. Controlled experiments test variables by comparing a control group with an experimental group. The independent (manipulated) variable is the one that is changed by the scientist The dependent (responding) variable changes in response to the change made to the ind. variable

23 Hypothesis Examples If skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light , then people with a high exposure to uv light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer. If leaf color change is related to temperature , then exposing plants to low temperatures will result in changes in leaf color. In the statements above the dependent variable is blue and the independent variable is red.

24 7. Report research methods & findings.
5. Observe & record data. 6. Draw conclusions. Support or refute hypothesis A theory may be formed- a collection of ideas, hypotheses, laws, and predictions which have been successfully tested, but are subject to modification when facts or experiments demand it. 7. Report research methods & findings. Scientific journals Lab reports


26 Setting Up a Controlled Experiment

27 Presenting Scientific Findings
Tables- used to organize data

28 Graphs are used to visually represent data
Bar graphs- illustrate comparisons Line graphs- recognize patterns or trends Pie graphs- represent percentages Title of graph should include dependent and independent variables Y-axis has the dependent variable X-axis has the independent variable


30 (pg. 21, parts of the microscope)
Microscopes Light Compound Microscope (LM): used to see small organisms and cells transparent specimen is mounted on glass slide Light passes through the specimen (pg. 21, parts of the microscope)

31 Electron Microscopes Use a beam of electrons to produce an enlarged image of a specimen Transmission electron microscope (TEM)- electrons sent through a thin specimen cannot view living specimens 200,000 x magnification

32 Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
electrons pass over specimen producing a 3D image 100,000 x magnification cannot view living organisms

33 Units of Measurement Scientists use one system of measurement, the metric system ( SI system) Decimal system based on powers of 10 SI has 7 base units


Download ppt "Chapter One: Science as a Process."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google