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LS 204 2010 Chapter 5 Biology Basics Student Learning Outcomes: 1.Explain the biological hierarchy of organization Give examples of each level 2.Explain.

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Presentation on theme: "LS 204 2010 Chapter 5 Biology Basics Student Learning Outcomes: 1.Explain the biological hierarchy of organization Give examples of each level 2.Explain."— Presentation transcript:

1 LS Chapter 5 Biology Basics Student Learning Outcomes: 1.Explain the biological hierarchy of organization Give examples of each level 2.Explain concisely features common to all living things 3.Describe the major groups of living organisms: the Three Domains and examples 4.Understand process of Scientific inquiry – Hypothesis testing

2 Biological Hierarchy of Organisms – Classification system organizes Like Figure 4.1 Add organelle as part of a cell

3 Basic Biological principles: Cell is the basic unit Yeast, Red blood cells Algae, Bacteria in blood

4 Life begins at the cell Basic unit of life, reproduction [viruses are not cells, not alive – live in other cells] Cell is enclosed by cytoplasmic membrane (separates contents from outside) Cytoplasm contains enzymes DNA is genetic material

5 Regulation and homeostasis Homeostasis is staying same (metastasis is changing – i.e. cancer) Requires proper balance of water, temperature, energy Humans have body temperature 98.6 o F, (37 o C) Reproduction and inheritance Survival of species; parents produce offspring Inheritance of genes (copy of DNA before cell divides)

6 Ecology = Interaction with environment Ecosystem = producers, consumers

7 Life requires energy (ability to do work) metabolism – all chemical reactions anabolism – synthesize things catabolism – break down Fig. 5.1 photosynthesis – light from sun +CO 2 + H 2 O -> sugar (producers = plants and some microorganisms) Other organisms consume (break down) sugars and food of plants (consumers) Ecosystems - flow of materials

8 Adaptation and evolution Adaptation = inherited traits help organisms survive and reproduce Figs. 2 & 3 show examples of natural selection: Environment ‘selects’ variant that is most fit for reproduction Example of antibiotic in media: selects organisms that can resist Evolution – process of change (in proportion of different genes (alleles))

9 Unity in diversity Common mechanisms underlie all life – DNA in genes, RNA, proteins (genetic code) – Mechanisms of manufacturing ATP, energy molecule Biodiversity = all the different animals and plants and microorganisms

10 Grouping life – diversity Fig. 5.4 Taxonomy - names and classifies species (old 5 kingdoms) Three Domains of organisms based on molecular evidence (DNA, RNA sequences): Bacteria – prokaryotes (Bacteria) Archaea - prokaryotes (extremohiles) Eukarya - eukaryotes (true nucleus) kingdoms include: Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protists

11 Process of Science - Scientific method. Ask questions and test to see explanations. (Fig. 5.5) 1. Observation 2. Ask question 3. Suggest explanation or hypothesis (educated guess) 4. Devise and perform experiments to test hypothesis 5. Possibly rework hypothesis if data do not support it. 6. If data do support, accept hypothesis and suggest theory Deduction: go from general observations to make specific predictions:

12 Review questions What features are common to all living organisms? What is homeostasis and why is it important? Where do most living things ultimately get energy? How are pesticide-resistant insects an example of natural selection in action? Name the 3 domains; name 3 kingdoms of eukaryotes


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