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Biology I.  Biology offers a framework to pose and answer questions about the natural world.  What do Biologists study?  Questions about how living.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology I.  Biology offers a framework to pose and answer questions about the natural world.  What do Biologists study?  Questions about how living."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology I

2  Biology offers a framework to pose and answer questions about the natural world.  What do Biologists study?  Questions about how living things work  How things interact with the environment  How things change over time.

3 Give 5 examples of investigations that affect you and the way you live. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

4  What makes an object “living”?


6  ORGANIZATION: the high degree of order within an organisms internal and external parts, and in its interactions with the living world

7  Cell: Smallest unit that can perform all life’s processes Unicellular: Multicellular:

8  Complex multicellular organisms are made up of ORGAN SYSTEMS:  Look at page 6 & 7 in your textbook. Organs: Tissues

9  Stimulus: A physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment. Examples: 1. 2. 3. Why is this important?

10  Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing.  Examples of homeostasis:  1.  2.

11  Living organisms use ______________ to power all the life processes, such as repair, movement and growth.  Metabolism: The sum of the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment.

12  What is growth?  How do living and non-living things differ in growth? Cell Division: the formation of 2 new cells from an existing cell

13 Unicellular: enlargement is goal Multicellular: maturity & development

14  Development: process by which an organism becomes a mature adult.  Involves: cell division & cell differentiation  What types of cells are “specialized” or differentiated?  1.  2.  3.

15  Do you have to reproduce to survive?  To survive, do you have to reproduce? Reproduction: organisms produce new organisms like themselves in this process Page 9: look at picture

16  DNA :  Gene: Deoxyribonucleic acid; contains hereditary information Short segment of DNA that contains instructions for a single trait

17  Sexual:  Asexual: Hereditary information combines from 2 organisms of the same species Information is NOT combined; The original organism and the new Organism are genetically the same Ex. Bacterium

18  The ability of POPULATIONS to evolve….  Why is this important?

19 Section 2

20  What is diversity of life? Many organisms are different, but all living things have features in common  What is “diversity”? variety

21  Scientists have divided organisms into 3 major branches: DOMAINS Domain BacteriaDomain Archaea bacteria archaea Domain Eukarya protists, plants, fungi, animals

22  1. Kingdom Bacteria  2. Kingdom Archaea  3. Kingdom Animalia  4. Kingdom Plantae  5. Kingdom Fungi  6. Kingdom Protista

23  ECOLOGY: branch of biology that studies organisms interacting with each other and with the environment  What has been the human effect on the world’s environment? ECOSYSTEM: communities of living species and their physical environments

24  Individual organisms can change during their lifetime, but their basic genetic characteristics do not change.  HOWEVER, populations of living things DO change through time.. EVOLUTION: process in which the inherited characteristics within populations change over generations; new species can develop

25  Organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to survive and reproduce successfully than organisms that lack these traits.  EXAMPLE: ADAPTATIONS: traits that improve an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce.

26 Page 12 in your textbook

27  All of science is characterized by ______________ & _______________ Scientific Method 1.Observation 2.Hypothesis 3.Experiment 4.Collect Data 5.Conclusion

28  1. State a problem : the act of perceiving something that causes someone to pose a question.  2. Collect information : looking up info to forma a hypothesis  3. Hypothesis: an educated guess; If___,then___ Created from a PREDICTION: a statement that forcasts what would happen in a test situation  4. Experiment: tests the hypothesis and it predictions  5. Analyze Data: collect all data  6. Conclusion: based on data collected  7. Repeat: share info with peers

29  INDEPENDENT  DEPENDENT (responding variable) This is affected by the independent variable. Presence or absence of light Distance from the owl’s strike to the mouse’s head

30  Analyzing & Comparing Data  Can create a graph such as this to show such things as distance, #’s, statistics, etc.

31  In our data, what is the conclusion?  Which hypothesis is supported?

32  An inference is a conclusion made on the basis of facts and previous knowledge rather than on direct observations. How is an inference UNLIKE a hypothesis? It cannot be directly tested.

33  THEORY: When many hypotheses are confirmed to be true, it can be considered a theory. Then, we must communicate our ideas! Some people publish papers, while others conduct a peer review.

34 Compound Light Microscope

35  Magnification: the increase of an objects apparent size  Eyepiece X objective= magnification  Resolution: the power to show details clearly  Physical properties of light source limit resolution (only up to 2000x)  May need more powerful scope for better resolution

36  Allows for viewing of entire specimen.  Cannot get resolution, just magnification.  Perfect for viewing bugs or other WHOLE specimens.

37 SEMTEM  Scanning Electron Microscope: passes beams of electrons over a specimen to create a 3-D image of surface creates great detail of only the surface Transmission Electron Microscope: transmits beam of electrons through a thinly sliced image creates great resolution of internal structure

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