Presentation on theme: "Biology I. Biology offers a framework to pose and answer questions about the natural world. What do Biologists study? Questions about how living."— Presentation transcript:
Biology offers a framework to pose and answer questions about the natural world. What do Biologists study? Questions about how living things work How things interact with the environment How things change over time.
Give 5 examples of investigations that affect you and the way you live. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
1. ORGANIZATION AND CELLS 2. RESPONSE TO STIMULI 3. HOMEOSTASIS 4. METABOLISM 5. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT 6. REPRODUCTION 7. CHANGE THROUGH TIME
ORGANIZATION: the high degree of order within an organisms internal and external parts, and in its interactions with the living world
Cell: Smallest unit that can perform all life’s processes Unicellular: Multicellular:
Complex multicellular organisms are made up of ORGAN SYSTEMS: Look at page 6 & 7 in your textbook. Organs: Tissues
Stimulus: A physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment. Examples: 1. 2. 3. Why is this important?
Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing. Examples of homeostasis: 1. 2.
Living organisms use ______________ to power all the life processes, such as repair, movement and growth. Metabolism: The sum of the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment.
What is growth? How do living and non-living things differ in growth? Cell Division: the formation of 2 new cells from an existing cell
Unicellular: enlargement is goal Multicellular: maturity & development
Development: process by which an organism becomes a mature adult. Involves: cell division & cell differentiation What types of cells are “specialized” or differentiated? 1. 2. 3.
Do you have to reproduce to survive? To survive, do you have to reproduce? Reproduction: organisms produce new organisms like themselves in this process Page 9: look at picture
DNA : Gene: Deoxyribonucleic acid; contains hereditary information Short segment of DNA that contains instructions for a single trait
Sexual: Asexual: Hereditary information combines from 2 organisms of the same species Information is NOT combined; The original organism and the new Organism are genetically the same Ex. Bacterium
The ability of POPULATIONS to evolve…. Why is this important?
ECOLOGY: branch of biology that studies organisms interacting with each other and with the environment What has been the human effect on the world’s environment? ECOSYSTEM: communities of living species and their physical environments
Individual organisms can change during their lifetime, but their basic genetic characteristics do not change. HOWEVER, populations of living things DO change through time.. EVOLUTION: process in which the inherited characteristics within populations change over generations; new species can develop
Organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to survive and reproduce successfully than organisms that lack these traits. EXAMPLE: ADAPTATIONS: traits that improve an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce.
All of science is characterized by ______________ & _______________ Scientific Method 1.Observation 2.Hypothesis 3.Experiment 4.Collect Data 5.Conclusion
1. State a problem : the act of perceiving something that causes someone to pose a question. 2. Collect information : looking up info to forma a hypothesis 3. Hypothesis: an educated guess; If___,then___ Created from a PREDICTION: a statement that forcasts what would happen in a test situation 4. Experiment: tests the hypothesis and it predictions 5. Analyze Data: collect all data 6. Conclusion: based on data collected 7. Repeat: share info with peers
INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT (responding variable) This is affected by the independent variable. Presence or absence of light Distance from the owl’s strike to the mouse’s head
Analyzing & Comparing Data Can create a graph such as this to show such things as distance, #’s, statistics, etc.
In our data, what is the conclusion? Which hypothesis is supported?
An inference is a conclusion made on the basis of facts and previous knowledge rather than on direct observations. How is an inference UNLIKE a hypothesis? It cannot be directly tested.
THEORY: When many hypotheses are confirmed to be true, it can be considered a theory. Then, we must communicate our ideas! Some people publish papers, while others conduct a peer review.
Magnification: the increase of an objects apparent size Eyepiece X objective= magnification Resolution: the power to show details clearly Physical properties of light source limit resolution (only up to 2000x) May need more powerful scope for better resolution
Allows for viewing of entire specimen. Cannot get resolution, just magnification. Perfect for viewing bugs or other WHOLE specimens.
SEMTEM Scanning Electron Microscope: passes beams of electrons over a specimen to create a 3-D image of surface creates great detail of only the surface Transmission Electron Microscope: transmits beam of electrons through a thinly sliced image creates great resolution of internal structure