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The Science of Life Chapter 1 Table of Contents Section 1 The World of Biology Section 2 Themes in Biology Section 3 The Study of Biology Section 4 Tools.

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Presentation on theme: "The Science of Life Chapter 1 Table of Contents Section 1 The World of Biology Section 2 Themes in Biology Section 3 The Study of Biology Section 4 Tools."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Science of Life Chapter 1 Table of Contents Section 1 The World of Biology Section 2 Themes in Biology Section 3 The Study of Biology Section 4 Tools and Techniques

2 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Objectives Relate the relevance of biology to a person’s daily life. Describe the importance of biology in human society. List the characteristics of living things. Summarize the hierarchy of organization within complex multicellular organisms. Distinguish between homeostasis and metabolism and between growth, development, and reproduction.

3 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Biology and You Biology and Society –Biology is the study of life and can be used to both solve societal problems and explain aspects of our daily lives.

4 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life Living things share the same 7 characteristics o properties: organization and cells, response to stimuli, homeostasis, metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, and evolution.

5 Chapter 1 The Seven Properties of Life Section 1 The World of Biology

6 Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued Organization and Cells –Organization is the high degree of order within an organism’s internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world. –A cell is the smallest unit of an organism that can perform all life’s processes. –Unicellular- organisms are made up one cell. –Multicellular organisms are made up of many cells and show a hierarchy of organization going from the organism to the atom.

7 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued Organization and Cells

8 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued Response to Stimuli –Another characteristic of life is that an organism can respond to a stimulus—a physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment.

9 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued Homeostasis –All living things have mechanisms that allow them to maintain stable internal conditions. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing.

10 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued Metabolism –Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment.

11 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued Growth and Development –The growth of living things results from the division and enlargement of cells.

12 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued Growth and Development –The growth of living things results from the division and enlargement of cells. –Development is the process by which an organism becomes a mature adult. –Continuous: offspring similar to parent –Metamorphic: major body changes occur

13 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued Reproduction –Living organisms pass on hereditary information from parents to offspring, also called reproduction.

14 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued Reproduction –Living organisms pass on hereditary information from parents to offspring, also called reproduction. –Asexual: one parent, creates two identical offspring. –Sexual: two parent combine genetics to create unique offspring that are genetically different from the parent.

15 Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued Change Through Time –Populations of living organisms evolve or change through time. –This leads to adaptations for survival.

16 The Science of Life Chapter 1 Table of Contents Section 1 The World of Biology Section 2 Themes in Biology Section 3 The Study of Biology Section 4 Tools and Techniques

17 Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Objectives Identify three important themes that help explain the living world. Explain how life can be diverse, yet unified. Describe how living organisms are interdependent. Summarize why evolution is an important theme in biology.

18 Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Diversity and Unity of Life Unity in the Diversity of Life –Life is so diverse,or full of variety. Yet, life is also characterized by unity, or features that all living things have in common.

19 Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Diversity and Unity of Life, continued Unity in the Diversity of Life –The tree of life shows that all living things have descended with modification from a single common ancestor. Yet, there are many different lineages, or branches, representing different species.

20 Chapter 1 Phylogenetic Diagram of Living Organisms Section 2 Themes in Biology

21 Chapter 1 Diversity and Unity of Life, continued Three Domains of Life –The three domains of life are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. –The six kingdoms include Archaea, Bacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

22 Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Interdependence of Organisms Organisms live in interdependent communities and interact with both organisms and the environment.

23 Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Evolution of Life Evolution, or descent with modification, is the process in which the inherited characteristics within populations change over generations. Evolution helps to explain how species came to exist, have changed over time, and adapt to their environment.

24 Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Evolution of Life, continued Natural Selection –Natural selection is a process by which organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to survive and reproduce successfully than organisms that lack these traits. –Natural selection can lead to the evolution of populations.

25 The Science of Life Chapter 1 Table of Contents Section 1 The World of Biology Section 2 Themes in Biology Section 3 The Study of Biology Section 4 Tools and Techniques

26 Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Objectives Outline the main steps in the scientific method. Summarize how observations are used to form hypotheses. List the elements of a controlled experiment. Describe how scientists use data to draw conclusions. Compare a scientific hypothesis and a scientific theory. State how communication in science helps prevent dishonesty and bias.

27 Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Science as a Process Steps of the Scientific Method –The scientific method involves making observations, asking questions, forming hypotheses, making predictions, designing experiments, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions.

28 Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Scientific Processes

29 Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Observing and Asking Questions The process of science begins with an observation. An observation is the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions. –Predicting To test a hypothesis, scientists make a prediction that logically follows from the hypothesis.

30 Chapter 1 Performing the Experiment A controlled experiment compares an experimental group and a control group and only has one variable. Controlled Experiment and Variable Section 3 The Study of Biology

31 Chapter 1 Designing an Experiment, continued Performing the Experiment –The control group provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group. –The experimental group is identical to the control group except for one factor.

32 Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Designing an Experiment, continued Performing the Experiment –The experimenter manipulates the independent variable. –The experimenter measures the dependent variable because it is is affected by the independent variable.

33 Chapter 1 Performing the Experiment –The experimenter manipulates the independent variable. –The experimenter measures the dependent variable because it is affected by the independent variable. Independent and Dependent Variables Section 3 The Study of Biology

34 Chapter 1 Designing an Experiment, continued Testing the Experiment –Experiments should be conducted without bias and they should be repeated. Analyzing and Comparing Data –Scientists analyze data to draw conclusions about the experiment performed.

35 Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Drawing Conclusions Making Inferences –An inference is a conclusion made on the basis of facts and previous knowledge rather than on direct observations. Applying Results and Building Models –Scientists often apply their findings about the natural world to solve practical problems.

36 Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Constructing a Theory A theory is a set of related hypotheses confirmed to be true many times, and it can explain a great amount of data.

37 Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Communicating Ideas Publishing a Paper –Scientists submit research papers to scientific journals for publication. –In peer review, the editors of a journal will send submitted papers out to experts in the field who anonymously read and critique the paper.

38 Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Honesty and Bias Communication between scientists about their methods and results helps prevent dishonesty and bias in science. Conflict of Interest –The threat of a potential scandal based on misleading data or conclusions is a powerful force in science that helps keep scientists honest and fair.

39 The Science of Life Chapter 1 Table of Contents Section 1 The World of Biology Section 2 Themes in Biology Section 3 The Study of Biology Section 4 Tools and Techniques

40 Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Objectives List the function of each of the major parts of a compound microscope. Compare two kinds of electron microscopes. Describe the importance of having the SI system of measurement. State some examples of good laboratory practice.

41 Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Microscopes as Tools Light Microscopes –A compound light microscope is a microscope that shines light through a specimen and has two lenses to magnify an image. –Four major parts of a compound light microscope are the ocular lens, objective lens, stage, and light source.

42 Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Microscopes as Tools Light Microscopes –The eyepiece magnifies the image. –The objective lens enlarges the specimen. –The stage is a platform that supports slides with specimens. –The light source is a light bulb that provides light for viewing images.

43 Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Microscopes as Tools, continued Magnification and Resolution –Magnification is the increase of an object’s apparent size. –Resolution is the power to show details clearly in an image.

44 Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Object Size and Magnifying Power of Microscopes

45 Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Microscopes as Tools, continued Electron Microscopes –In an electron microscope, a beam of electrons produces an enlarged image of the specimen. –Electron microscopes provide greater magnification and resolution than light microscopes.

46 Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Microscopes as Tools, continued Electron Microscopes –Scanning electron microscopes pass a beam of electrons over the specimen’s surface for better viewing the external surface of a specimen.

47 Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Microscopes as Tools, continued Electron Microscopes –Transmission electron microscopes transmit a beam of electrons through a thinly sliced specimen for better viewing the internal structures of a specimen.

48 Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Units of Measurement Base and Other Units –Scientists use a single, standard system of measurement, called the metric system. The official name of the metric system is Système International d’Unités or SI.

49 Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Units of Measurement Base and Other Units –The metric system has seven base units.

50 Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Safety Good Laboratory Practice –Lab safety involves safe and common-sense habits such as never working alone in a lab or without proper supervision by the teacher.

51 The Science of Life Chapter 1 Table of Contents Section 1 The World of Biology Section 2 Themes in Biology Section 3 The Study of Biology Section 4 Tools and Techniques


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