Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1- Scope of Biology Text- Biology, Exploring Life"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 1- Scope of Biology Text- Biology, Exploring Life Biology I- CPChapter 1- Scope of BiologyText- Biology, Exploring Life
2What is Science? Scientia (latin) - to know. Definition- A branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts systematically arranged.What is Biology?Bios- life; logos-studyStudy of living things and their interactions.Characteristics of life-Movement, growth, reproduce, breathe, response to stimuli, change shape, excretion.
3What are characteristics of all living things? What are characteristics of a burning candle?
4Biologists use 6 characteristics to classify something as living or “alive” All Living Things:1. Are made of cellsA cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things“building blocks of life”2. Use energyPlants use the sun energy (sunlight) to produce their own food (producers).Animals (consumers) get energy by eating plants or other animals.3. Have features that help them to adapt to their surroundingsCamouflage, blend in with surroundings, ability to store water
56 Characteristics of Living Things (Continued) 4. React to changes in their surroundingsLiving things react to stimuli (light, sounds, etc.)5. Change or develop during their lifetimesChanges in appearance or size (grow)6. ReproduceProduce more organisms of their own kindAllows each kind of organism to continue living on earth
61.1 Biology is studied from Global Microscopic Scale Organizational levels of life:BiosphereEcosystemOrganismCellsDNA &Genes
7Biosphere All parts of the planet with living things. Includes water bodiesLand massesExtends several kilometers above Earth
8EcosystemIncludes all living (biotic) things and all nonliving (abiotic) features in an environment.What things are in the example above?Can you list some other examples of ecosystems?
9Organism Individual living things Can be large- such as… or Microorganisms-Too small to see with our eyes.Need a microscope.Ex- BacteriaRemember ecosystems are dynamic- constantly changing because of interactions of all organisms and the environment.
10Cells The basic unit of structure and function. A microscopic room What does that mean?A microscopic roomNucleus- control center; directs activities of the cell.Cell theory: 3 partsThe basic unit of structure and function in all living things.All organisms are composed of one or more cells.Cells come from existing cells.
11DNA & Genes Inheritance DNA- Deoxyribonucleic AcidThe code of life ; instructions for making needed molecules.Found in the nucleus of the cell.Genes- units of inherited information.Many genes are on one length of DNA.What are some Examples of genes?Human Genome Project.
12Concept 1.2 Biology explores diverse life forms Textbook- pp. 7-10
13More than 1.5 million species. SPECIES - A distinct form of life that can reproduce with each other and produce fertile offspringMore than 1.5 million species.Species diversity – variety of species in a given areaInsects- most diverse groupTropical rain forests- most diverse ecosystem. – thousands of species/acre.
14CLASSIFICATIONA strategy for putting organisms in categories based on similar characteristics.How to remember?
15How do we remember?Domain- Kingdom-Phylum- Class- Order-Family-Genus- Species.Help Aid:Do Keep Penguins Cold Or Find Good Shelter.
163 DOMAINS OF LIFEDomain – broadest (largest)category in classifying life formsEukaryaBacteriaArchaea
17Eukaryotic Vs Prokaryotic Organisms Contain nuclei in their cellsComplex organismsMany are multicellular (many-celled); but not allProkaryotic –No nucleus.Simple organismsAll are unicellular (1-celled)
18Domain Eukarya Eukaryotic organisms More complex 4 kingdoms-Plants, Animals, Protists, & FungiPlants and Animals –multicellular- many-celledFungi and Protists can be multicellular or unicellular.
19Domain Bacteria Tiny, Single cell, simple, prokaryotic organisms Has 1 kingdom- BacteriaExample: Streptococcus (bacteria that causes strep throat)
20Archaea Tiny, unicellular, prokaryotes “Extreme” bacteria; the “x games” bacteriaLive in (v.hot, salty, v cold) places;Examples?
211.3 Ten Themes of BiologyBasic ideas/themes apply to all levels of biology and all organisms.Help us connect what we will learn.
221. Biological SystemsA system is a combination of parts that makes a complex organization.The properties are based on the arrangement of the parts and how the parts interact.All living things are biological systems.Examples-human bodyecosytems
232. Cellular Basis of Life All organisms are made of cells Multicellular organisms have many levels of organization.Levels of organization:Cell- basic unit of structure and functionTissue- group of similar cells that perform a specific function.Organ- Made up of several types of tissue.Organ system- several organs that together carry out a major body function.Organism- has many organ systems that carry out life processes.
253. Form & FunctionThe form or structures living things have allow them to perform certain functions or tasks.Can you come up with some examples?FormFunctionBird’s wingFly
264. Reproduction & Inheritance Organisms have the ability to reproduce their own kind.Genes are responsible for the passing on of traits.Genes are made up of sections of DNADNA contains the information for all characteristics.Each cell in your body contains a copy of the DNA you inherited from your mother and father.When a cell divides, it copies its DNA and passes this genetic information on to each of the two cells it produces.
275.Interaction with the Environment No organism is completely isolated.In ecosystems, each organism interacts continuously with its environmentPlants make food through photosynthesisEquation of photosynthesis-6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2Plant roots break up rocks and release chemicals- acids into the soil.
285. Interaction with Environment continued Transfer/ recycling of chemicals is key between organisms and their environment in ecosystems.Can you come up with some examples?Just as you are constantly sensing and responding to changes in your environment, so are all other organisms.Some examples?
296. Energy and LifeLife processes such as moving, growing, reproducing require organisms to perform work.To work there must be a source of energy.Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and exits in the form of heat.In an ecosystem energy is converted from one form of energy to another.
31Plants and other photosynthetic organisms are producers in an ecosystem Producers produce the food in photosynthesis.The plants use some of the food they produce for their own fuel and building material.Consumers, are animals and other organisms that eat (consume) the food made by the producers.The heat is released to the environmentEcosystem cannot recycle energy.Life on Earth depends on a continuous supply of energy from the sun.
327. RegulationDefinition- the ability of organisms to regulate their internal conditions.homeostasis, or "steady state.“organisms regulate their internal environment, despite changes in their external environment.Examples?Sweating helps cool your body.Panting- cooling mechanism-Panting causes moisture on the surface of the animal's lungs to evaporate, cooling the body as a result.
338. Adaptation and Evolution An adaptation-an inherited trait that helps an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment.What are some examples of adaptations?A population - a group of organisms of the same species in a defined area.Individuals of a population vary in their traits.In natural selection -nature selects individuals with certain traits best suited in environments. They live longer and produce more offspring with these traits.
34Evolution evolution means "a process of change.“ evolution -a generation-to-generation change in the proportion of different inherited genes in a population.The above beetle population is evolving.
359. Biology & Society The impact biology has on the life of humans Examples?Make a list
3610. Scientific Inquiry Asking questions about the natural world. Using observations & experiments to find answers to the questions.