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Biology I- CP Chapter 1- Scope of Biology Text- Biology, Exploring Life.

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1 Biology I- CP Chapter 1- Scope of Biology Text- Biology, Exploring Life

2 What is Science? Scientia (latin) - to know. Definition- – A branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts systematically arranged. What is Biology? – Bios- life; logos-study – Study of living things and their interactions. Characteristics of life- – Movement, growth, reproduce, breathe, response to stimuli, change shape, excretion.

3 What are characteristics of all living things? What are characteristics of a burning candle?

4 Biologists use 6 characteristics to classify something as living or “alive” All Living Things: 1. Are made of cells – A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things – “building blocks of life” 2. Use energy – Plants use the sun energy (sunlight) to produce their own food (producers). – Animals (consumers) get energy by eating plants or other animals. 3. Have features that help them to adapt to their surroundings – Camouflage, blend in with surroundings, ability to store water Biologists use 6 characteristics to classify something as living or “alive” All Living Things: 1. Are made of cells – A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things – “building blocks of life” 2. Use energy – Plants use the sun energy (sunlight) to produce their own food (producers). – Animals (consumers) get energy by eating plants or other animals. 3. Have features that help them to adapt to their surroundings – Camouflage, blend in with surroundings, ability to store water

5 6 Characteristics of Living Things (Continued) 4. React to changes in their surroundings – Living things react to stimuli (light, sounds, etc.) 5. Change or develop during their lifetimes – Changes in appearance or size (grow) 6. Reproduce – Produce more organisms of their own kind – Allows each kind of organism to continue living on earth 4. React to changes in their surroundings – Living things react to stimuli (light, sounds, etc.) 5. Change or develop during their lifetimes – Changes in appearance or size (grow) 6. Reproduce – Produce more organisms of their own kind – Allows each kind of organism to continue living on earth

6 1.1 Biology is studied from Global Microscopic Scale Organizational levels of life: Biosphere Ecosystem Organism Cells DNA & Genes

7 Biosphere All parts of the planet with living things. – Includes water bodies – Land masses – Extends several kilometers above Earth

8 Ecosystem Includes all living (biotic) things and all nonliving (abiotic) features in an environment. What things are in the example above? Can you list some other examples of ecosystems?

9 Organism Individual living things – Can be large- such as… – or Microorganisms- Too small to see with our eyes. Need a microscope. Ex- Bacteria Remember ecosystems are dynamic- constantly changing because of interactions of all organisms and the environment.

10 Cells The basic unit of structure and function. – What does that mean? A microscopic room Nucleus- control center; directs activities of the cell. Cell theory: 3 parts 1.The basic unit of structure and function in all living things. 2.All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 3.Cells come from existing cells.

11 DNA & Genes Inheritance DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid – The code of life ; instructions for making needed molecules. – Found in the nucleus of the cell. Genes- units of inherited information. – Many genes are on one length of DNA. – What are some Examples of genes? – Human Genome Project.

12 Concept 1.2 Biology explores diverse life forms Textbook- pp. 7-10

13 SPECIES - A distinct form of life that can reproduce with each other and produce fertile offspring More than 1.5 million species. Species diversity – variety of species in a given area Insects- most diverse group Tropical rain forests- most diverse ecosystem. – thousands of species/acre.

14 CLASSIFICATION A strategy for putting organisms in categories based on similar characteristics. How to remember?

15 How do we remember? Domain- Kingdom-Phylum- Class- Order- Family-Genus- Species. – Help Aid: Do Keep Penguins Cold Or Find Good Shelter.

16 3 DOMAINS OF LIFE Domain – broadest (largest)category in classifying life forms 1.Eukarya 2.Bacteria 3.Archaea

17 Eukaryotic Vs Prokaryotic Organisms Eukaryotic Contain nuclei in their cells Complex organisms Many are multicellular (many- celled); but not all Prokaryotic – No nucleus. Simple organisms All are unicellular (1-celled)

18 Domain Eukarya – Eukaryotic organisms – More complex – 4 kingdoms-Plants, Animals, Protists, & Fungi Plants and Animals –multicellular- many-celled Fungi and Protists can be multicellular or unicellular.

19 Domain Bacteria – Tiny, Single cell, simple, prokaryotic organisms – Has 1 kingdom- Bacteria – Example: Streptococcus (bacteria that causes strep throat)

20 Archaea – Tiny, unicellular, prokaryotes – “Extreme” bacteria; the “x games” bacteria – Live in (v.hot, salty, v cold) places; – Examples?

21 1.3 Ten Themes of Biology Basic ideas/themes apply to all levels of biology and all organisms. Help us connect what we will learn.

22 1. Biological Systems A system is a combination of parts that makes a complex organization.system The properties are based on the arrangement of the parts and how the parts interact. All living things are biological systems. Examples- – human body – ecosytems

23 2. Cellular Basis of Life All organisms are made of cells Multicellular organisms have many levels of organization. Levels of organization: – Cell- basic unit of structure and function – Tissue- group of similar cells that perform a specific function. – Organ- Made up of several types of tissue. – Organ system- several organs that together carry out a major body function. – Organism- has many organ systems that carry out life processes.

24 Cellular Level of Organization-Example

25 3. Form & Function The form or structures living things have allow them to perform certain functions or tasks. Can you come up with some examples? Form Function Bird’s wingFly

26 4. Reproduction & Inheritance Organisms have the ability to reproduce their own kind. Genes are responsible for the passing on of traits. Genes are made up of sections of DNA DNA contains the information for all characteristics. Each cell in your body contains a copy of the DNA you inherited from your mother and father. When a cell divides, it copies its DNA and passes this genetic information on to each of the two cells it produces.

27 5.Interaction with the Environment No organism is completely isolated. In ecosystems, each organism interacts continuously with its environment Plants make food through photosynthesis – Equation of photosynthesis- – 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Plant roots break up rocks and release chemicals- acids into the soil.

28 5. Interaction with Environment continued Transfer/ recycling of chemicals is key between organisms and their environment in ecosystems. Can you come up with some examples? Just as you are constantly sensing and responding to changes in your environment, so are all other organisms. Some examples?

29 6. Energy and Life Life processes such as moving, growing, reproducing require organisms to perform work. To work there must be a source of energy. Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and exits in the form of heat. In an ecosystem energy is converted from one form of energy to another.

30 Energy Pyramid

31 Plants and other photosynthetic organisms are producers in an ecosystem producers Producers produce the food in photosynthesis. The plants use some of the food they produce for their own fuel and building material. Consumers, are animals and other organisms that eat (consume) the food made by the producers. Consumers The heat is released to the environment Ecosystem cannot recycle energy. Life on Earth depends on a continuous supply of energy from the sun.

32 7. Regulation Definition- the ability of organisms to regulate their internal conditions. homeostasis, or "steady state.“ homeostasis – organisms regulate their internal environment, despite changes in their external environment. Examples? Sweating helps cool your body. Panting- cooling mechanism- – Panting causes moisture on the surface of the animal's lungs to evaporate, cooling the body as a result.

33 8. Adaptation and Evolution An adaptation-an inherited trait that helps an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment.adaptation What are some examples of adaptations? A population - a group of organisms of the same species in a defined area.population Individuals of a population vary in their traits. In natural selection -nature selects individuals with certain traits best suited in environments. They live longer and produce more offspring with these traits. natural selection

34 Evolution evolution means "a process of change.“ evolution -a generation-to-generation change in the proportion of different inherited genes in a population. evolution The above beetle population is evolving.

35 9. Biology & Society The impact biology has on the life of humans Examples? – Make a list

36 10. Scientific Inquiry Asking questions about the natural world. Using observations & experiments to find answers to the questions.


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