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DIPLOMADO EN ENSEÑANZA DE INGLÉS TEACHING RECEPTIVE SKILLS Alma Delia Frías Puente Enero, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "DIPLOMADO EN ENSEÑANZA DE INGLÉS TEACHING RECEPTIVE SKILLS Alma Delia Frías Puente Enero, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 DIPLOMADO EN ENSEÑANZA DE INGLÉS TEACHING RECEPTIVE SKILLS Alma Delia Frías Puente Enero, 2009.

2 READING AND LISTENING SIMILARITIES Processing ideas transmitted through laguage Processing ideas transmitted through laguage Involve highly complex cognitive processing operations Involve highly complex cognitive processing operationsDIFFERENCES Listening is ephemeral. Words are gone as soon as they are uttered. Listening is ephemeral. Words are gone as soon as they are uttered. Written words are permanent, and can be revisited. Written words are permanent, and can be revisited.

3 Unlike speaking, reading is not something that every individual learns to do. Unlike speaking, reading is not something that every individual learns to do. Money, time and effort are spent to teach reading in elementary and secondary schools. Money, time and effort are spent to teach reading in elementary and secondary schools. Being literate is a mark of the educated person. Being literate is a mark of the educated person.

4 ACTIVITY 1 Take a few minutes and reflect on all of the reading that you have done in the last twenty-four hours. Take a few minutes and reflect on all of the reading that you have done in the last twenty-four hours. PURPOSES AND TYPES OF READING (STRATEGIES) PURPOSES AND TYPES OF READING (STRATEGIES)

5 BOTTOM-UP APPROACH BOTTOM-UP APPROACH - Discriminate each letter - Discriminate each letter - Sound these out - Sound these out - Match the written symbol to the aural - Match the written symbol to the aural equivalent equivalent - Blend these together to form words - Blend these together to form words - Derive meaning (final step) - Derive meaning (final step) “READING” without understanding “READING” without understanding

6 TOP-DOWN APPROACH TOP-DOWN APPROACH - One begins with a set of hypotheses or - One begins with a set of hypotheses or predictions about the meaning of the text. predictions about the meaning of the text. - Sample the text to determine whether or not - Sample the text to determine whether or not one´s predictions are correct. one´s predictions are correct. - Reading is a process of reconstructing meaning - Reading is a process of reconstructing meaning rather than decoding form. rather than decoding form. - The reader resorts to decoding if the other - The reader resorts to decoding if the other means fail. means fail.

7 READING is an interactive process, in which the reader constantly shuttles between bottom-up and top-down processes. READING is an interactive process, in which the reader constantly shuttles between bottom-up and top-down processes.

8 ACTIVITY 2 Study the text and answer the questions. Study the text and answer the questions.

9 Given the CONTEXT for the text, people can make sense of it. Given the CONTEXT for the text, people can make sense of it.

10 RESEARCH INTO READING SCHEMA THEORY SCHEMA THEORY We do not process print in a serial, linear, step-by-step process. Nor do we process print as “visual tape- recorders.” We do not process print in a serial, linear, step-by-step process. Nor do we process print as “visual tape- recorders.” Rather, we interpret what we read in terms of what we already know, and we intergrate what we already know with the content of what we are reading. Rather, we interpret what we read in terms of what we already know, and we intergrate what we already know with the content of what we are reading.

11 Our knowledge and expectations about the world will strongly affect our ability to understand new information by providing the framework within which that new information might fit. Our knowledge and expectations about the world will strongly affect our ability to understand new information by providing the framework within which that new information might fit. The texts themselves, whether spoken or written, do not carry meaning. The texts themselves, whether spoken or written, do not carry meaning. Rather they provide signposts, or clues to be utilized by listeners or readers in reconstructing the original meaning of speakers or writers. Rather they provide signposts, or clues to be utilized by listeners or readers in reconstructing the original meaning of speakers or writers.

12 THE TRANSFER HYPOTHESIS Good readers in a first language will be able to transfer their skills to the second language. Good readers in a first language will be able to transfer their skills to the second language. Readers, when functioning in a second language, may be using the wrong schema to guide comprehension of the text. Readers, when functioning in a second language, may be using the wrong schema to guide comprehension of the text. Readers at different levels of proficiency use different reading strategies. Readers at different levels of proficiency use different reading strategies.

13 CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF READING COMPREHENSION CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF READING COMPREHENSION Background knowledge is a more important factor than grammatical complexity in the ability of readers to comprehend the cohesive relationship in the texts. Background knowledge is a more important factor than grammatical complexity in the ability of readers to comprehend the cohesive relationship in the texts. Students have a greater success in inserting acceptable words into gaps in the familiar, yet grammatically more complex text A, than simpler, yet unfamiliar text B. Students have a greater success in inserting acceptable words into gaps in the familiar, yet grammatically more complex text A, than simpler, yet unfamiliar text B.

14 EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION P.261 EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION P.261 THE “GOOD” READING TASK P. 262 THE “GOOD” READING TASK P. 262 STRATEGIES P.265 STRATEGIES P.265


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