Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Introduction Textbook: Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (2th ed.). Oxford University Press."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 1: Introduction Textbook: Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (2th ed.). Oxford University Press.
Goals of this book One of the goals of this book is for you to learn about many different language teaching methods.
Goals of this book A second goal is to help you uncover the thoughts that guide your own actions as a teacher.
Goals of this book A third goal is to introduce you to a variety of techniques, some of which will be new.
Thought –in-action links It is very important for you to become aware of the thoughts that guide your actions in the classroom.
Thought –in-action links Heather: Juan, ask Anna what she is wearing. Juan: What are you wearing? Anna: I am wearing a dress. Heather: Anna, ask Muriel what she is writing. Anna: What are you writing? Muriel: I am writing a letter.
Thought –in-action links It was clear to see that Heather had successfully avoided the common problem of the teacher asking all the questions in the class.
Thought –in-action links Heather came to see that if she truly wanted students to take more initiative, then she would have to set up the situation in a way that her participation in an activity was not essential.
Thought –in-action links The links between thought and action were very important in Heather’s teaching. She came to realize that when something was not going as she had intended, she could change one or she could change the other.
A coherent set If a teacher believes that language is made up of a set of fixed patterns, it makes little sense for him or her to use techniques which help learners discover the abstract rules underlying a language to enable them to create novel patterns.
A coherent set Stevick(1993)has shown that the simple technique of teaching students a dialog using a picture to provide a context can lead to very different conclusions about teaching and learning depending on how the technique is managed.
A coherent set If the students first look at the picture, close their eyes while the teacher reads the dialog, and then repeat the dialog bit by bit after the teacher, repeating until they have learned it fluently and flawlessly, the students could infer that It is the teacher who is the provider of all language and its meaning in the classroom.
A coherent set They could further infer that they should use that ‘part of their brains that copies but not the part that creates’
A coherent set How a particular technique might look very different( and might lead students to very different conclusions about their learning), depending on how it is managed.
A coherent set How thoughts lead to actions in your teaching and how, in turn, your teaching leads to learning in your students (Prabhu, 1992) Ultimately, the choice among techniques and principles depends on learning outcomes.
Doubting Game and Believing Game When our fundamental beliefs are challenged, we are often quick to dismiss the idea. your belief v.s. others’ doubting game or believing EX. ”The Silent Way”—Caleb Gattegno V.S. The author’s belief
What is silent way and why? A teacher should never praise a student, not even say good or smile. Reason 1— Without having the teacher to rely on, students have to assume responsibility for the work. Reason 2—Only the learner can do the learning.
What is silent way and why? Reason3—If the teacher makes a big deal out of students’ success, he implies that what the student is doing is out of ordinary.
What is doubting game and who always does it? The doubting game requires logic and evidence. It emphasizes a model of knowing as an act of discrimination: putting sth on trial to see whether it is wanting or not.
What is doubting game and who always does it? In the western world tend to the doubting game Ex. “Our contemporary education indoctrinates us in the glorification of doubt, has created in fact……” Rinpoche
What is doubting game and who always does it? In the eastern world tend to the believing game
Layout of chapters 1 The book includes teaching method, general approach to language teaching, and examples of approach. In the even-numbered chapters, the teacher is female; in the odd-numbered chapters, the teacher is male.
Layout of chapters 2 There will be different level classes in the book. the way teachers think about language teaching and learning will shape how they work at all levels.
Process of applying the techniques in each chapter 1 In the conclusion of each chapter, you will be asked about how all of this information can be use to you in your teaching. you need to view these methods through the filter of your own beliefs
Process of applying the techniques in each chapter 2 In the end of lesson, the book will infer the principles on which the teacher’s behavior and techniques are based. answer the following ten Qs to test ourselves
Process of applying the techniques in each chapter 3 1. What are the goals of teachers who use the method? 2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students? 3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
Process of applying the techniques in each chapter 4 4.What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student- student interaction? 5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with? 6. How is language viewed?
Process of applying the techniques in each chapter 5 7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized? 8. What is the role of the students’ native language? 9. How is evaluation accomplished?
Process of applying the techniques in each chapter 6 10. How does the teacher respond to student errors? After answer the Qs the above, we review the techniques in the lesson again.
Process of applying the techniques in each chapter 7 At the end of each chapter, there are two types of exercises. 1. check your initial understanding of the method presented 2. make the connection between what you understand about a method and your own teaching situation.