Presentation on theme: "TKT Essentials Moscow 2009. By the end of this session you will be able to: Distinguish the differences between warmer and lead-in stages Assess the advantages."— Presentation transcript:
By the end of this session you will be able to: Distinguish the differences between warmer and lead-in stages Assess the advantages and disadvantages of presentation techniques
What were the main differences between the two activities you have just done (Hangman and the group discussion on how new language was presented)? Which one is a WARMER? Which is a LEAD-IN?
A WARMER is an activity at the start of the class to prepare learners for an English lesson. They should be of short duration. A LEAD-IN introduces the theme of the class. They can also be used to prepare the class for a new activity during the lesson. A warmer is not necessarily related to the topic of the lesson whereas a lead-in introduces the topic of the lesson.
Which of the following are warmers and which are lead-ins: Asking learners to stand in a line according to height then divide learners into equal groups. Asking learners if they read magazines and elicit what sections there are in magazines. Ask learners what shops they like going to and why?
actually takes place in a classroom. It is a PARTICULAR TRICK used to accomplish an immediate objective. TECHNIQUES must be consistent with a METHOD, and therefore in harmony with an APPROACH as well.
The Total Physical Response (TPR) The Grammar-Translation Presentation, Practice, Production (PPP) Test – Teach – Test (TTT) Task-Based Learning (TBL) Guided Discovery
It was developed by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University, California in the 1960s. The teacher presents the language in the form of commands which are demonstrated and modeled by the teacher and fulfilled by the students.
Memorable, good for younger learners and lower levels Fun Good for kinaesthetic learners. There is also visual input (teachers gestures) and auditory input (teachers words) Can be used with large classes Doesnt require a lot of preparation
Limited amount of words this can be used for Some learners may find it embarrassing Not always suitable for more advanced levels
Other names: German, Classical, Traditional Began in Germany in 1780s for teaching classical languages: Greek and Latin. Focused on learning grammatical rules and translation of texts. Was not taught for oral communication, but in order to help students read and appreciate literature.
This method has no theory behind it. The goal of the method was to present students with grammar rules and word lists, and then translation exercises with the same rules and words. The ability to communicate in the target language is NOT a goal. The danger is that it teaches people ABOUT the language but doesnt really help communicate effectively with it.
Some learners respond to rules or enjoy grammatical analysis. It can be an effective way of comparing L1 and L2 to help develop language awareness
Not very meaningful, some words/structures are difficult to translate accurately Focuses on accuracy at the expense of fluency Learners read and write a lot, but do not get many opportunities to speak the foreign language or to use it creatively
Other name: the Army Method Originated in American army education in 1940s The main principle is: the target language is first presented in spoken form before written form. Language is speech not writing. Classes are based on drilling the patterns by a simple method of imitation and repetition.
ALM is based on behavioral psychology: stimulus – response – reward (which makes the response automatic). The goal is to enable the student to perform orally in common conversational situations (automatic production of the language patterns filled with various content).
1. Setting up a situation 2. Eliciting (or modeling) the language that fits the situation 3. Having students practice the new language in a controlled way 4. Encouraging students to use the new language in a freer way
Language is presented in context Language is practiced in a safe environment where its harder to make mistakes
Learners might not be ready or need the language practiced Its very controlled and can be teacher- centered The production stages dont necessarily involve real communication
1 You see what the learners know and create a need for the target language 2 Present the language 3 Practice using the target language
Can be adapted to different types of language Gives learners opportunities to try to work things out Learners can identify what they need to learn Teachers can identify what needs to be taught
Learners may feel frustrated Activities may break down in the first test stage if learner language knowledge is insufficient The lesson stages may involve too much input Learners may not have sufficient opportunities to practice
1970s reaction to Grammar-Translation and Audio-Linguistic Methods First principle: language is not just patterns of grammar with vocabulary items, but also language functions such as inviting, agreeing, suggesting, etc, which students should learn how to perform using a variety of language exponents.
The second principle: enough exposure to language, and opportunities for language use – then language learning will take care of itself. Communicative activities let students use all and any language they know to communicate. People learn English not to know about it, but to communicate with it.
1. Introducing the topic or task (by brainstorming, using texts, etc). 2. Doing the task (in pairs without correction) 3. Planning the reporting back (teacher goes around advising) 4. Reporting back (students speak in front of the class; teacher chairs and comments but doesnt correct). 5. Teacher input. 6. Language analysis, review and practice.
Learners can learn language when needed, use language experimentally Learners can engage in real communication, and get good opportunities to communicate Learners can depend on their own resources The contexts for communication are fairly natural Language can arise from learner needs
Doesnt suit all leaning styles and some learners may prefer more structure and guidance The technique may call for considerable classroom management skills with some classes Teachers may feel uncomfortable in the role of observer, monitor and language diagnostician
Learners are active This technique promotes learner independence This technique suits learners who enjoy reflecting and analysing
Doesnt suit all learning styles and some learners may prefer more structure and guidance Can be time- consuming, and so may not suit presentation of all new language items