2LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this session you will be able to: Distinguish the differences between warmer and lead-in stagesAssess the advantages and disadvantages of presentation techniques
3WARMER/LEAD-IN DIFFERENCES What were the main differences between the two activities you have just done (Hangman and the group discussion on how new language was presented)? Which one is a WARMER? Which is a LEAD-IN?
4WARMER/LEAD-IN DEFINITION A WARMER is an activity at the start of the class to prepare learners for an English lesson. They should be of short duration.A LEAD-IN introduces the theme of the class.They can also be used to prepare the class for a new activity during the lesson.A warmer is not necessarily related to the topic of the lesson whereas a lead-in introduces the topic of the lesson.
5WARMER/LEAD-IN DIFFERENCE Which of the following are warmers and which are lead-ins:Asking learners to stand in a line according to height then divide learners into equal groups.Asking learners if they read magazines and elicit what sections there are in magazines.Ask learners what shops they like going to and why?
6Technique actually takes place in a classroom. It is a PARTICULAR TRICK used to accomplish an immediate objective.TECHNIQUES must be consistent with a METHOD, and therefore in harmony with an APPROACH as well.
7Different methods in language teaching The Total Physical Response (TPR)The Grammar-TranslationPresentation, Practice, Production (PPP)Test – Teach – Test (TTT)Task-Based Learning (TBL)Guided Discovery
8Total Physical Response (TPR) It was developed by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University, California in the 1960s.The teacher presents the language in the form of commands which are demonstrated and modeled by the teacher and fulfilled by the students.
9TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR) advantages Memorable, good for younger learners and lower levelsFunGood for kinaesthetic learners. There is also visual input (teacher’s gestures) and auditory input (teacher’s words)Can be used with large classesDoesn’t require a lot of preparation
10TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR) DISadvantages Limited amount of words this can be used forSome learners may find it embarrassingNot always suitable for more advanced levels
11Grammar-Translation (Origin) Other names: German, Classical, TraditionalBegan in Germany in 1780s for teaching classical languages: Greek and Latin.Focused on learning grammatical rules and translation of texts.Was not taught for oral communication, but in order to help students read and appreciate literature.
12Grammar-Translation (Approach and goals) This method has no theory behind it.The goal of the method was to present students with grammar rules and word lists, and then translation exercises with the same rules and words.The ability to communicate in the target language is NOT a goal.The danger is that it teaches people ABOUT the language but doesn’t really help communicate effectively with it.
13GRAMMAR TRANSLATION ADVANTAGES Some learners respond to rules or enjoy grammatical analysis.It can be an effective way of comparing L1 and L2 to help develop language awareness
14Grammar translation disadvantages Not very meaningful, some words/structures are difficult to translate accuratelyFocuses on accuracy at the expense of fluencyLearners read and write a lot, but do not get many opportunities to speak the foreign language or to use it creatively
15The Audio-Lingual Method (Origin and principle) Other name: the Army MethodOriginated in American army education in 1940sThe main principle is: the target language is first presented in spoken form before written form. “Language is speech not writing”.Classes are based on drilling the patterns by a simple method of imitation and repetition.
16The Audio-Lingual Method (Approach and goals) ALM is based on behavioral psychology: stimulus – response – reward (which makes the response automatic).The goal is to enable the student to perform orally in common conversational situations (automatic production of the language patterns filled with various content).
17Presentation – Practice – Production (PPP) Setting up a situationEliciting (or modeling) the language that fits the situationHaving students practice the new language in a controlled wayEncouraging students to use the new language in a freer way
18Presentation practice production (PPP) advantages Language is presented in contextLanguage is practiced in a safe environment where it’s harder to make mistakes
19Presentation practice production (PPP) disadvantages Learners might not be ready or need the language practicedIt’s very controlled and can be teacher- centeredThe production stages don’t necessarily involve real communication
20Test – teach - test1 You see what the learners know and create a need for the target language 2 Present the language 3 Practice using the target language
21Test – Teach – Test Advantages Can be adapted to different types of languageGives learners opportunities to try to work things outLearners can identify what they need to learnTeachers can identify what needs to be taught
22Test – Teach – test Disadvantages Learners may feel frustratedActivities may break down in the first test stage if learner language knowledge is insufficientThe lesson stages may involve too much inputLearners may not have sufficient opportunities to practice
23Communicative Language Teaching (Principles) 1970s reaction to Grammar-Translation and Audio-Linguistic MethodsFirst principle: language is not just patterns of grammar with vocabulary items, but also language functions such as inviting, agreeing, suggesting, etc, which students should learn how to perform using a variety of language exponents.
24Communicative Language Teaching (clt) The second principle: enough exposure to language, and opportunities for language use – then language learning will take care of itself.Communicative activities let students use all and any language they know to communicate.People learn English not to know about it, but to communicate with it.
25Task-Based Learning (TBL) Introducing the topic or task (by brainstorming, using texts, etc).Doing the task (in pairs without correction)Planning the reporting back (teacher goes around advising)Reporting back (students speak in front of the class; teacher chairs and comments but doesn’t correct).Teacher input.Language analysis, review and practice.
26TASK BASED LEARNING advantages Learners can learn language when needed, use language experimentallyLearners can engage in real communication, and get good opportunities to communicateLearners can depend on their own resourcesThe contexts for communication are fairly naturalLanguage can arise from learner needs
27Task based learning disadvantages Doesn’t suit all leaning styles and some learners may prefer more structure and guidanceThe technique may call for considerable classroom management skills with some classesTeachers may feel uncomfortable in the role of observer, monitor and language diagnostician
28Guided Discovery advantages Learners are activeThis technique promotes learner independenceThis technique suits learners who enjoy reflecting and analysing
29Guided discovery disadvantages Doesn’t suit all learning styles and some learners may prefer more structure and guidanceCan be time- consuming, and so may not suit presentation of all new language items