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The Russian Revolution Tsar Nicholas II Vladimir Ilyich Lenin V.

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Presentation on theme: "The Russian Revolution Tsar Nicholas II Vladimir Ilyich Lenin V."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Russian Revolution Tsar Nicholas II Vladimir Ilyich Lenin V.

2 Alexander IIAlexander III Nicholas II The End of the Monarchy in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Nicholas II and Family Alexis, Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia Nicholas and Alexandra

3 Society This period was one of rapid growth of capitalism and industrialization. – Rise of an urban middle class (`bourgeoisie’) and urban working class (derived from peasantry) great social instability, a proliferation of political movements, parties, and ideologies strikes, demonstrations, and disturbances. Fascination with mysticism and sensual delights, because the government was hopeless, so why the heck not.

4 Change in society… Resisted calls for codifying civil rights and for institutions of political representation. There were no elections for national governance. On the assassination of his grandfather in 1881,`Temporary Regulations’ were introduced, a mild form of martial law; Alexander III maintained and extended them. They included the government’s right to: – –fine, exile, or imprison people without a court decision – –suspend or close newspapers or journals – –prohibit meetings and demonstrations Did everything possible to limit and control the local administrative organs, such as the zemstvo.

5 Tsar Nicholas II Assumed throne at 26; felt inadequate and unprepared. –Probably because he was inadequate and unprepared. Simple, modest, devoted to family Weak, indecisive, inconsistent, education by his father did not match role in life; relied excessively on uncertain advice of rotating ministers and advisers. His political inclinations were clearly conservative.

6 The Romanov Family Eldest son of Alexander III and Empress Maria, he married German princess Alexandra (granddaughter of Queen Victoria) They had five children: the Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria, and Anastasia, and finally the Tsarevich Alexei (b. 1904).

7 1905 Rehearsal Tsarist government won’t accept liberal ideologies Tsarist government won’t accept liberal ideologies Russo-Japanese war leads to hardships and embarrassing defeat Russo-Japanese war leads to hardships and embarrassing defeat Liberal and radical groups press for change Liberal and radical groups press for change January 22, 1905, workers gather to peacefully protest economic hardships January 22, 1905, workers gather to peacefully protest economic hardships Tsar’s troops fire on the crowd Tsar’s troops fire on the crowd Bloody Sunday Anniversary Poster

8 Bloody Sunday (1905)

9 Outcome Demands for reforms spiral out of control (1825 Decembrist Revolt serves as a model) Demands for reforms spiral out of control (1825 Decembrist Revolt serves as a model) General strike paralyzes country in October General strike paralyzes country in October Army is occupied with Russo-Japanese war Army is occupied with Russo-Japanese war Government falters Government falters Nicholas II issues a new manifesto promising civil liberties, a popularly elected Duma (parliament), legalization of unions Nicholas II issues a new manifesto promising civil liberties, a popularly elected Duma (parliament), legalization of unions Troops return, repression restores the old order by 1907 Troops return, repression restores the old order by 1907

10 Countdown to Revolution August 1915, Nicolas II leaves to supervise WWI troops personally August 1915, Nicolas II leaves to supervise WWI troops personally People blame the Tsar for heavy losses of trench warfare – it was mostly due to underproduction of goods & weapons. People blame the Tsar for heavy losses of trench warfare – it was mostly due to underproduction of goods & weapons.

11 Nicholas II Congratulating Soldiers

12 Countdown to Revolution Tsarina Alexandra comes under the sway of Rasputin (who claims to be able to heal her son) Tsarina Alexandra comes under the sway of Rasputin (who claims to be able to heal her son) Even aristocratic supporters rebel at his access to the royal families, influence on policies Even aristocratic supporters rebel at his access to the royal families, influence on policies Alexandra with Alexei. He had to be carried most places due to his crippling hemophilia and pain.

13 Grigorij Efimovich Rasputin ( ) `Rasputin’ is a nickname, from the Russian word for debauchery. His real surname was `Novyx’. Born in Siberia, a peasant in origin. Huge fellow, not a priest; belonged to a sect for which bathing was... optional. In 1901 he quit his home to become a pilgrim. He stopped washing and didn't touch his body for months on end. In an effort to gain spirituality, he sometimes wore shackles to increase the hardship of his journey. He was now a 'starec', a wandering holy man. He had personal charisma, made his way into the royal family to help Alexei – it was said he could cure the boy’s suffering from hemophilia.

14 1917 Revolution Begins Cities face severe hardships due to WWI Cities face severe hardships due to WWI Women strike in March 1917, demand an end to high prices and the rule of Nicholas II Women strike in March 1917, demand an end to high prices and the rule of Nicholas II Troops reluctant to fire on the crowd because of the presence of women Troops reluctant to fire on the crowd because of the presence of women Government falls Government falls March 12 – 1 st Provisional Government organized, Nicholas II abdicates March 12 – 1 st Provisional Government organized, Nicholas II abdicates

15 Provisional Government (March- May) Initial plan is for a modern constitutional parliamentary democracy, politicians from the upper classes Initial plan is for a modern constitutional parliamentary democracy, politicians from the upper classes Must share power with workers’ groups (soviets), which want socialist self- rule Must share power with workers’ groups (soviets), which want socialist self- rule Government continues unpopular involvement in WWI Government continues unpopular involvement in WWI Neither group can control the peasants, who hoard food, seize land, make shortages worse Neither group can control the peasants, who hoard food, seize land, make shortages worse

16 Provisional Government (May- November) Initial leaders resign, moderate socialists (led by Kerensky) head the new government Initial leaders resign, moderate socialists (led by Kerensky) head the new government Bolshevik minority agitates for radical change Bolshevik minority agitates for radical change Kerensky stays in WWI, throws Bolsheviks in prison, forces them to flee Kerensky stays in WWI, throws Bolsheviks in prison, forces them to flee Alexander Kerensky

17 Petrograd Street Fighting (1917)

18 Lenin Sweeps Away Workers’ Enemies Nov. Revolution Threat of military coup forced Kerensky to release Bolsheviks to defend the capital Threat of military coup forced Kerensky to release Bolsheviks to defend the capital Provisional government discredited Provisional government discredited Demonstrations on Nov. 6/7 cause Kerensky to flee Demonstrations on Nov. 6/7 cause Kerensky to flee Lenin takes control to “defend” the state Lenin takes control to “defend” the state

19 Captivity and Murder of the Romanovs Forced to stay captive in home at Tsarskoe Selo until August of 1917, when they were forced into exile in Tobolsk. Forced to stay captive in home at Tsarskoe Selo until August of 1917, when they were forced into exile in Tobolsk. The following May they were sent to Yekaterinburg to avoid advancing White Army supporters. They were all shot in the basement of the Governor's House under the pretence of a family photo. No one survived. The following May they were sent to Yekaterinburg to avoid advancing White Army supporters. They were all shot in the basement of the Governor's House under the pretence of a family photo. No one survived.

20 Bolsheviks Fulfill Promises (1918) March – Sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany, despite harsh terms March – Sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany, despite harsh terms Russia loses Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Ukraine, and Georgia Russia loses Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Ukraine, and Georgia Much of the population no longer in Russia, ¾ of iron, 9/10 of Russia’s coal Much of the population no longer in Russia, ¾ of iron, 9/10 of Russia’s coal Begin to give power to the workers Begin to give power to the workers

21 Russian Diplomats at Brest-Litovsk

22 Civil War Begins , Civil War between Whites (aristocracy, supported by Allied Powers) and Reds (anticapitalist Bolshevik government) , Civil War between Whites (aristocracy, supported by Allied Powers) and Reds (anticapitalist Bolshevik government) Reds see betrayal everywhere and try to spread revolution to Central Europe (where post-war instability makes it possible) Reds see betrayal everywhere and try to spread revolution to Central Europe (where post-war instability makes it possible)

23 Red Army Soldier brandishig a sword over White Generals (1920)

24 Consolidation of the Russian Revolution: The USSR

25 Revolutionary Social Changes Abolish private property, nationalize factories, legalize universal suffrage Abolish private property, nationalize factories, legalize universal suffrage Attempt to centralize agricultural production (seize grain to feed army and workforce) Attempt to centralize agricultural production (seize grain to feed army and workforce) Not successful: industrial production at 13% of pre-WWI levels Not successful: industrial production at 13% of pre-WWI levels Famine strikes, peasants revolt, workers strike, sailors mutiny Famine strikes, peasants revolt, workers strike, sailors mutiny NEP (New Economic Plan) attempts to solve the problems in 1921 with its “compromise with capitalism) NEP (New Economic Plan) attempts to solve the problems in 1921 with its “compromise with capitalism)

26 NEP (1921) Peasants manage and sell their own crops Peasants manage and sell their own crops Small amounts of private ownership are allowed Small amounts of private ownership are allowed Other countries become less threatened by Bolshevism and recognize Russia (except USA, which doesn’t recognize the USSR until 1933) Other countries become less threatened by Bolshevism and recognize Russia (except USA, which doesn’t recognize the USSR until 1933)

27 New Political Structures Communist Party becomes formalized (and all candidates must belong) Communist Party becomes formalized (and all candidates must belong) Cheka (secret police, precursor to KGB) Cheka (secret police, precursor to KGB) New structures promote totalitarian state, brutally suppress opposition. New structures promote totalitarian state, brutally suppress opposition.

28 Struggle for Power post-Lenin Lenin dies in 1924 – who is his heir? Lenin dies in 1924 – who is his heir? Most assume Trotsky (brilliant leader of the Red Army) Most assume Trotsky (brilliant leader of the Red Army) Stalin posed as Lenin’s heir, led movement to deify Lenin Stalin posed as Lenin’s heir, led movement to deify Lenin Stalin brings new people into the Party Stalin brings new people into the Party Stalin uses control over Central Committee to seize power in 1928 Stalin uses control over Central Committee to seize power in 1928 Joseph Stalin

29 Stalin Transforms Russia Calls for rapid and massive industrialization Calls for rapid and massive industrialization Attacks the Kulaks who protest collectivization Attacks the Kulaks who protest collectivization 5 Year Plan (1928) moves away from NEP toward original ideals 5 Year Plan (1928) moves away from NEP toward original ideals “Mobilize for industrializaton” “Mobilize for industrializaton” Consumer goods remain scarce Consumer goods remain scarce

30 Totalitarianism Use Political Propaganda Use Political Propaganda Engineered Famine Engineered Famine Developed Cult of Stalin Developed Cult of Stalin Eliminated Political Enemies through Purges ( especially) Eliminated Political Enemies through Purges ( especially) Millions executed or died in forced labor camps Millions executed or died in forced labor camps


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