Presentation on theme: "Alexander III Russian czar in 1881 Autocratic government, or a government that has total power Censorship Secret police Persecution of other nationalities."— Presentation transcript:
Alexander III Russian czar in 1881 Autocratic government, or a government that has total power Censorship Secret police Persecution of other nationalities and religions –Pogroms: organized violence against Jews
Nicholas II Russian czar in 1894 Ruled like his father, Alexander III Rapid industrialization, including building of Trans- Siberian Railroad (1904) Industrialization led to social problems –Poor working conditions –Low wages –Child labor
Bolsheviks Committed revolutionaries who were willing to sacrifice everything for social change Led by Vladimir Lenin Following Marx’s ideas of communism REVIEW: What is communism and how did Karl Marx believe communism would change society?
Nicholas II’s Power Weakens Russo-Japanese War and WWI weakened czar Nicholas II’s power Bloody Sunday (January 1905) –500 to 1,000 people killed by czar’s generals when they petitioned for better working/living conditions Creation of the Duma, Russia’s first parliament… didn’t have real power REVIEW: What happened to Russia in WWI?
Who was Rasputin? What impact did he have on the czarina Alexandra? Why? What impact did Rasputin have on Russian politics during WWI? Why? What is peculiar about Rasputin’s death?
March Revolution March 1917 – riots throughout Russia forced Nicholas II to abdicate his throne Provisional government (temporary) established though rioting continued Social revolutionaries formed soviets, or local councils consisting of workers, peasants and soldiers who competed for power Germans return Lenin to Russia (from exile) in April 1917 Bolshevik Revolution
CausesEffects Widespread discontent Weak leadership Defeat in Russo- Japanese War Bloody Sunday WWI loses Strikes and riots Civil War (1918-1920) that killed 15 million people Czar and his family killed Peace with Germany in WWI Bolshevik control of government – gave factories to workers and land to peasants Russian economy in ruins
Lenin & the Soviet Union Lenin allowed some capitalism to help the economy – individuals could buy and sell goods, but major industries were owned by the government Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR): formed in 1922 –“dictatorship of the Communist party” –Not pure communism… why? The economy began to recover
The death of Lenin in 1924 led to power struggles in the government and opened the door for… Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin: One of Lenin’s revolutionary supporters, a Bolshevik, who had total command of the Communist Party in Russia by 1928, sending his rival and threat to power, Leon Trotsky, into exile Lenin believed that Stalin was a dangerous man… was he?
Totalitarianism A government that takes total control over every aspect of public and private life –Goes against ideas of freedom, human dignity and the worth of the individual Stalin created a totalitarian state in Russia
Key TraitsDescription DictatorshipLeader exercises absolute power Dynamic leaderHelps unite people towards shared goals IdeologyMain goal: the aims of the state State control of society Business, family, labor, youth groups, housing, religion, education, etc. State control of individual Demand total obedience and personal sacrifice for the state Dependence on modern technology Mass communication – radios, loudspeakers, etc. to spread propaganda; build up of weapons Organized violence Secret police to crush opposition; minorities and/or opponents were enemies
How did Stalin create a totalitarian state in Russia? Command economy: government made all economic decisions Industrial Revolution –Five-Years Plans to promote industrial growth Quotas in output of coal, steel, oil, electricity Limited consumer purchase of same goods led to shortages in housing, food and clothing Every aspect of workers’ lives controlled by government, such as job and working hours People imprisoned & executed for not contributing
Agricultural Revolution –Collective farms: private farms seized by government and combined into large, government owned farms –How did the peasants respond? Killed livestock and destroyed crops… why? With violence, Stalin forced peasants to work and produce food for the state Kulaks: wealthy peasants Stalin chose to “eliminate” 5 million – 10 million peasants killed; millions more sent to Siberia How did Stalin create a totalitarian state in Russia?
Secret Police Great Purge: –1934-1939 –executed anyone who threatened Stalin’s power for “crimes against the Soviet state” –Stalin responsible for the deaths of 8 to 13 million Russian people How did Stalin create a totalitarian state in Russia?
Propaganda: biased information made to sway people to believe one thing over another –Propaganda used to glorify Stalin and change people’s minds People made to believe in Communist ideals, and to accept the importance of sacrifice and hard work How did Stalin create a totalitarian state in Russia?
“Never buy in a private shop when you can buy in a cooperative.” “Educational work inspires cooperation.”
“A deserter from the labor force is an accomplice to the counter revolution.”
“Only the Red Army can bring peace to your farms and villages.”
“Workers to arms! You are needed by the Red Army.” “Everyone should work!”
How did Stalin create a totalitarian state in Russia?