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Russian Revolution Causes and Effects.

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Presentation on theme: "Russian Revolution Causes and Effects."— Presentation transcript:

1 Russian Revolution Causes and Effects

2 Causes Widespread discontent in all classes of Russian society
Absolute rule: czar denied people any participation in government; ruled harshly as an autocrat (1 ruler with unlimited power) Russia was weak and underdeveloped as compared to industrialized nations such as Britain and Germany

3 Causes Workers were unhappy with poor wages and working conditions, low standard of living, and lack of political power Upper classes resented influence of foreigners brought in to run factories Peasants suffered from lack of food and land (famine in Lenin’s hometown, about 500 miles from Moscow, killed 300,000) Revolutionaries (Lenin/Bolsheviks) organized and called for a country where the workers ruled

4 Causes Military problems: loss to Japan in Russo-Japanese War (1905) led to revolts by peasants, workers, sailors, and others “Bloody Sunday:” Czar’s troops opened fire on unarmed workers protesting for better working conditions (January 1905); 100s, possibly 1000s died; months of protests and worker strikes followed Soviets were formed: groups that represented workers, soldiers, and peasants Lack of meaningful change by Czar Nicholas II (formed a Duma (parliament), but had power to veto its decisions and dismiss members at will) Soaring prices (inflation) wiped out people’s savings Massive losses in World War I (close to 7 million military casualties; 1.5 million civilian deaths)

5 Effects Czar overthrown in March Revolution in which a provisional government took over Power struggle amongst various factions (groups) with different ideas Provisional government kept Russia in WWI Bolsheviks made promises of “Peace, Land, and Bread” to gain support of peasants

6 Effects Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, overthrew Provisional Government in a relatively peaceful transition (November Revolution) Lenin outlawed any opposition to Communist Party Civil War ( ): “Whites” (troops loyal to czar) vs. “Reds” (communists); 15 million Russians killed by starvation, disease, and massacres

7 Effects Lenin resorted to War Communism: using secret police to eliminate opposition: tens of thousands executed, including czar and family Businesses placed under control of government (nationalized) To feed army, soldiers seized food from peasants Economy declined; Lenin forced to adopt NEP (New Economic Policy): used limited capitalism to boost economic growth

8 Effects Communist Party members made up less than 1% of Russia’s population, but dominated the government and Russian society USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) formed in 1922; 15 Republics represented different nationalities; all controlled by Communist Party Communists opposed Russian Orthodox Church; seized Church lands, jailed clergy, closed Church schools Communist Party controlled information by censoring the media; used propaganda to promote themselves

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