There are two types of sentences in Tagalog: Identificational and Predicational.
An identificational sentence consists of the topic (subject) before the comment (predicate). TopicComment Si Steven ang gobernador. Stevenis the governor. Both the topic and the comment are marked by the definite particle ang before the common nouns or si/sina before personal proper names. Type of sentence 1: Identificational
Type of sentence 2: Predicational A predicational sentence consists of the comment (predicate) before the topic (subject). This is the more common sentence type in Tagalog. CommentTopic Gobernador si Steven. Steven is a governor.
1. Statement Pattern 2. Question Pattern 3. Response Pattern (to Yes-No Questions) There are three basic predicative sentence patterns in Tagalog:
Three basic predicative sentence patterns: Statement Pattern 1. STATEMENT PATTERN A)Affirmative statement CommentTopic Doktorsi Audri. The comment can be a noun, an adjective, or verb. Unlike the comment of an identificational sentence, this comment is unmarked by the ang particle, because the sunject is a name of a person marked by si, a person name marker.
B) Negative statement Hindi + Comment + Topic Hindi titser si Eileen. Hindi, a negative particle, is placed before the basic sentence to make it negative. When the topic is a pronoun, however, the topic precedes the comment and follows hindi immediately as follows: Hindi + Pronoun + Comment Hindi siya maganda. Hindi ka pulis. Three basic predicative sentence patterns: Statement Pattern 1. STATEMENT PATTERN
Three basic predicative sentence patterns: Question Pattern 2. QUESTION PATTERN A) Yes-No Question Comment + ba + Topic Pilipino ba si Vlad? Doktor ba siya? Ba is a question marker that usually follows the first word of a sentence. If, however, the topic is the pronoun ka, then ba is placed after it. Example: Pangit ka. Pangit ka ba?
Three basic predicative sentence patterns: Question Pattern B) Negative Question Hindi ba + Comment + Topic Hindi ba dentista si Nelson? Doktor ba siya? As before, when the topic is a pronoun, there is a shift in word order. When the pronoun is ka, ba follows it. In fact, all one syllable words come before BA. Example: Hindi ba estudyante si Angelo? Hindi ba siya Pilipino? Hindi ka ba Pilipino? 2. QUESTION PATTERN
Three basic predicative sentence patterns: Response Patterns to Yes-No Questions 3. RESPONSE PATTERNS TO YES-NO QUESTIONS A) Affirmative Response Oo + Comment + Topic Oo, estudyante si Angelo. Oo, karpentero siya. A simple “oo” can stand for the whole affirmative response.
Three basic predicative sentence patterns: Response Patterns to Yes-No Questions B) Negative Response In contrast to a negative sentence, the negative response has two hindi’s. Hindi, hindi siya dentista. Hindi, hindi Pilipino si Xavier. Another type of negative response is a combination of a negative statement and an affirmative one. One hindi is used and a pause comes before the true information about the topic. Question: Pangit ba si Leezel? Response: Hindi, maganda siya. 3. RESPONSE PATTERNS TO YES-NO QUESTIONS
Other Type of Sentence Pattern: The subject comes first like in English. Notice the inversion marker AY in the following sentences: Ex. Siya ay maganda. Or Si Mary ay maganda.