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Digital Electronics Lecture 7 Sequential Logic Circuit Design

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Announcements http://www.uobkupartnership.talktalk.net Books, CD Exam and further teaching of electronics Digital Systems, Principles and Applications, 10th Edition R.J Tocci, N. S. Windmer, G. L. Moss, 2007. Kleitz, W., Digital Electronics, Pearson Education Inc, 2005. Clements, A, Microproscessor System Design, PWS-Kent publishing Copany, 1992.

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Lecture 6 outline Review of last Lecture Sequential Logic Circuits Basic Latch Flip-Flops

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Review of Last Lecture Design procedure for combinational logic circuits. Adders Multiplexer Simulation exercises using logic converter

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Sequential Logic Circuits Any sequential logic system can be broken down into two sections: Memory part combinational part The combinational part will comprise the usual AND, OR gates etc. The memory part is usually implemented with bistable devices. Two basic types: latches and flip-flops.

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Sequential Logic Circuits Any sequential logic system can be broken down into two sections: Memory part combinational part The combinational part will comprise the usual AND, OR gates etc. The memory part is usually implemented with bistable devices. Two basic types: latches and flip- flops.

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A latch changes state when the input states change. This property is known as transparency. Data is stored by the latch when an enable input (if provided) is valid. A flip-flop however can only change state on the application of a clock pulse. A purely sequential system is one in which the output is determined by the order in which the input signals are applied. Sequential circuits are classified as asynchronous (unclocked) or synchronous (clocked).

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The Basic Latch The basic latch has two stable states that correspond to a logic 1 and logic 0. The output changes from one state to another depending on the inputs. Consider the simple latch shown below. Truth table as shown below: ABXY 0011 0110 1001 11XX

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This is the basis of the SR (or RS) latch, where A=R, B=S, X=Q and Y=/Q. The circuit symbol is shown below.

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The Gated SR Latch The inputs to a gated Latch are controlled by a gate/enable/clock input which allows the latch inputs A and B to be active only when a logic 1 is present on the clock input. This therefore is a level activated device. The truth table is now: RSCl k Q/Q XX0XXSame as A = B = 1 001XX 01110 10101 11111 The function of the RS gated latch can be illustrated with a waveform diagram as shown below.

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The truth table is now: Symbol The truth table is now: RSCl k Q/Q/Q XX0XXSame as A = B = 1 001XX 01110 10101 11111 The function of the RS gated latch can be illustrated with a waveform diagram as shown below.

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The JK Flip-Flop The JK flip-flop is basically an SR gated latch with modifications to eliminate the problems of the final indeterminate state. When the two inputs J and K are both 1 then the output Q changes state. It is said to toggle under these conditions. Circuit Symbol:

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JKQ n+1 00QnQn 011 100 11/Q n

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Truth table QnQn Q n+1 JK 000X 011X 10X1 11X0 Truth table:

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Excitation table Truth table: QnQn Q n+1 JK 000X 011X 10X1 11X0

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The D-Type Flip-Flop The D (data) type flip- flop is basically a single- bit storage device. It can be constructed by connecting an inverter between the J and K inputs of a JK flip-flop as shown overleaf. DQ n+ 1 00 11

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Data appearing on the data input D is simply clocked through to the output Q on the application of a clock pulse. Symbol:

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The T-Type Flip-Flop The T (toggle) type flip- flop also has a single input. It too can be implemented using a JK flip-flop; the inputs are simply connected together as shown below TQ n+1 0QnQn 1/Q n

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PR ESET and Clear inputs Positive and negative edged triggered devices

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Main Points Sequential Logic Circuits. Latch J-K flip-flop D – Type flip-flop T-type flip-flop Counters Shift register

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The End Thank you for your attention.

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