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Music Appreciation (MUSI 115) Class #4

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Presentation on theme: "Music Appreciation (MUSI 115) Class #4"— Presentation transcript:

1 Music Appreciation (MUSI 115) Class #4
Baroque Music, conclusion George Frideric Handel

2 JS Bach…… "[Handel] is the only person I would wish to see before I die, and the only person I would wish to be, were I not Bach."

3 George Frideric Handel
German-born composer of Italian, French, and German styles catering to English audiences George Frideric Handel (1685–1759) German-born composer of Italian, French, and German styles catering to English audiences Vocal music: Composed opera seria (Italian serious opera) and oratorio (music drama based on a religious subject) Representative opera seria: Julius Caesar

4 George Frideric Handel
Studied in Italy International career Impresario and theater owner Made and lost a fortune Founded the London and the Royal Academy of Music George Frideric Handel (1685–1759) Born in Germany Studied and composed in Italy Success brought him to London Royal Academy of Music Prolific composer of Italian opera seria Julius Caesar After opera seria fell out of vogue, composed oratorios Israel in Egypt, Messiah, Judas Maccabaeus, Jephtha

5 Halle, (West) Germany

6 Handel’s Vocal Music 42 operas* 29 oratorios* 129 cantatas*
Expanded dramatic intensity of the chorus* Handel’s Music Tended toward diatonic harmonies Tone color used for atmosphere and expression Wrote more than 40 operas Expanded the role of the chorus

7 Handel’s Instrumental Music
Prolific composer of instrumental music Orchestral suites Water Music Music for the Royal Fireworks Prolific composer of instrumental music: Orchestral suites Water Music Music for the Royal Fireworks

8 HWV numbers Händel-Werke-Verzeichnis (abbreviated as HWV) London Home
Catalogue of Handel's Works London Home

9 Handel’s Instrumental Music

10 Baroque Instruments Instrument designs were improved
Finest violins in history came from shops of Stradivarius Guarneri Amati Baroque Instruments Instrument designs were improved Finest violins in history came from shops of: Stradivarius Guarneri Amati

11 The Baroque Orchestra Violin strings made of gut
Woodwinds made of wood valveless, or “natural” Horns and trumpets Timpani The Baroque Orchestra Baroque violin strings made of gut (today’s are of steel) Woodwinds were all made of wood Trumpet moves from purely military use to orchestral member Horns and trumpets were valveless, called “natural” instruments Could play in only one key at a time Timpani occasionally added to the orchestra

12 Baroque Keyboard Instruments
Organ Harpsichord Clavichord Baroque Keyboard instruments Organ: used at church and home Harpsichord: strings are plucked by quills, cannot sustain tones Clavichord: metal levers exert pressure on strings harpsichord

13 The Baroque Sonata* 1. Sonata da camera* 2. Sonata da chiesa*
Written for 1–8 instruments Most often: two violins and continuo* Handel Trio sonata* Sonata Types The sonata was the most popular form of chamber music Early sonatas: one sectional movement or several contrasting movements Sonata da camera: chamber sonata, typically a group of stylized dances Sonata da chiesa: church sonata, more serious and contrapuntal, four movements, tempo sequence slow-fast-slow-fast Written for 1–8 instruments Favored combination: two violins and continuo Trio sonata Trio sonata: sonata printed on three staves of music, actually performed by four players (continuo requires two players)

14 Baroque Concerto* Contrast and unity
Latin concertare (“to contend with”) Opposition of different forces Baroque Concerto Basic elements of Baroque: contrast and unity Concerto: from the Latin concertare (“to contend with”) Instrumental form based on the opposition of different forces

15 Two Types of Concerto Organ concerto #1: Solo Concerto*
Solo concerto: one instrument set against the orchestra Concerto grosso: small group of soloists set against orchestra Concertino: small group in the concerto grosso Ripieno, or tutti: large group in the concerto grosso

16 Two Types of Concerto #2: Concerto Grosso* Harp Concerto

17 Two orchestral suites* by Handel
Water Music* 1717 Music for the Royal Fireworks* 1749 Handel and the Orchestral Suite Two notable suites by Handel Water Music Music for the Royal Fireworks

18 Water Music*, Suite in D major, II
Royal party on the Thames River in London, July 17, 1717 22 separate stand-alone pieces Hornpipe Water Music, Suite in D major, I and II (Listening Guide) Royal party on the Thames River in London, July 17, 1717 22 numbers Performed without continuo (no harpsichord on a boat) Divided into three suites

19 First performance April 17, 1717. Daily Courant :
The King took Water at Whitehall in an open Barge ... and went up the [Thames] River towards Chelsea. Many other Barges with Persons of Quality attended, and so great a Number of Boats, that the whole River in a manner was cover'd; a City Company's Barge was employ'd for the Musick, wherein were 50 instruments of all sorts, who play'd all the Way from Lambeth the finest Symphonies, compos'd express for this Occasion, by Mr. Hendel; which his Majesty liked so well, that he caus'd it to be plaid over three times in going and returning. At Eleven his Majesty went a-shore at Chelsea where a Supper was prepar'd, and then there was another very fine Consort of Musick, which lasted till 2; after which, his Majesty came again into his Barge, and return'd the same Way, the Musick continuing to play till he landed.


21 Royal Fireworks Music* 1749
Golden Jubilee in 2002

22 Two types of vocal music…
Oratorio* Opera*

23 Oratorio* and Opera* Similarities
Overture* Aria* Da capo al Fine* Recitative* Ensemble numbers: Duet*, (Trio*, Quartet*, etc.) Chorus* The Components of Opera Recitative: musical declamation, plot is advanced Secco: accompanied only by continuo instruments Accompagnato: accompanied by the orchestra Aria: a song, usually highly emotional, stands out from recitative Da capo aria: a ternary (A-B-A) song form Ensemble numbers: characters join together in song Duet: two voices Trio: three voices Quartet, etc.: four voices, and so on Chorus: used to back up solo voices, or functions independently Overture: instrumental number begins the opera Sinfonias: instrumental interludes between acts and scenes Libretto: the text of the work Librettist: the person who writes the text

24 Oratorio and Opera Differences
Language Italian vs. English Staging Subject matter Libretto (Librettist) Sacred vs. Sacred Text

25 Baroque Oratorio* Oratorio Performed by solo voices
Soprano Alto Tenor Bass (or, Baritone) large chorus (SATB) orchestra no staging or costumes 24. Handel and the Oratorio The Oratorio Oratorio: large-scale dramatic genre with religious or Biblical text Performed by solo voices, chorus, orchestra No staging or costumes

26 Handel: Messiah* Premiered in Dublin in 1742 Written in 24 days
Libretto*: in three separate parts Compilation of Old and New Testament text Handel: Messiah, Nos. 18, 44 (Listening Guide) Premiered in Dublin in 1742 Written in 24 days Libretto: compilation of Old and New Testament

27 Aria vs. Recitative Recitative* Aria* Text is centered on the plot
Simple to sing No melody or rhythmic complexities Simple chords accompanied on the harpischord* Aria* Text focuses on the character’s feelings Highly difficult music requires a virtuoso vocal technique Memorable tunes Full orchestral accompaniment

28 Recitative from Theodora
Lorraine Hunt Lieberson Ah! Whither should we fly, or fly from whom? The Lord is still the same, today, for ever, And his protection here, and everywhere. Though gath'ring round our destin'd heads The storm now thickens, and looks big with fate, Still shall thy servants wait on Thee, O Lord, And in thy saving mercy put their trust.

29 Messiah: Soprano aria “Rejoice greatly
(da capo aria) Three-part form: I: Christmas Recitative: both secco and accompagnato Soprano aria “Rejoice greatly” (da capo aria) Melisma

30 Baroque Opera* The New Genre of the Baroque Era
Large-scale musical drama combining Singing Plot (Secular) Acting Scenery Costumes Instrumental music 21. Baroque Opera Opera: a large scale music drama combining poetry, acting, scenery, costumes, singing, and instrumental music

31 Baroque Opera: Semele

32 Voice assignments* Soprano Alto Tenor Baritone/Bass
Mezzo-Soprano or Contralto Replacing castrati Tenor Baritone/Bass

33 Julius Cesare (1724) Montserrat Caballe “Vadoro pupille”

34 Legacy Fell out of popularity after his death
Original instruments revival (1970s) Bel Canto revival (1960s)

35 CD #1, Track “Hallelujah” Chorus from Messiah (HWV 56)
Listen for… Enormous, vertical columns of sound; SATB voicing Full orchestral sound Minimal contrapuntal motion

36 Back to Bach… The Passion According To St. John (1724)
Recitative: “…Then Peter thought about the words of Jesus. He went out and he began to sob bitterly…”

Original: Inversion: Retrograde: Retrograde inversion: Augmentation: Diminution: MELODY MELODY MELODY MELODY MELODY MELODY

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