2JS Bach……"[Handel] is the only person I would wish to see before I die, and the only person I would wish to be, were I not Bach."
3George Frideric Handel German-born composer of Italian, French, and German styles catering to English audiencesGeorge Frideric Handel (1685–1759)German-born composer of Italian, French, and German styles catering to English audiencesVocal music:Composed opera seria (Italian serious opera) and oratorio (music drama based on a religious subject)Representative opera seria: Julius Caesar
4George Frideric Handel Studied in ItalyInternational careerImpresario and theater ownerMade and lost a fortuneFounded the London and the Royal Academy of MusicGeorge Frideric Handel (1685–1759)Born in GermanyStudied and composed in ItalySuccess brought him to LondonRoyal Academy of MusicProlific composer of Italian opera seriaJulius CaesarAfter opera seria fell out of vogue, composed oratoriosIsrael in Egypt, Messiah, Judas Maccabaeus, Jephtha
6Handel’s Vocal Music 42 operas* 29 oratorios* 129 cantatas* Expanded dramatic intensity of the chorus*Handel’s MusicTended toward diatonic harmoniesTone color used for atmosphere and expressionWrote more than 40 operasExpanded the role of the chorus
7Handel’s Instrumental Music Prolific composer of instrumental musicOrchestral suitesWater MusicMusic for the Royal FireworksProlific composer of instrumental music:Orchestral suitesWater MusicMusic for the Royal Fireworks
8HWV numbers Händel-Werke-Verzeichnis (abbreviated as HWV) London Home Catalogue of Handel's WorksLondon Home
10Baroque Instruments Instrument designs were improved Finest violins in history came from shops ofStradivariusGuarneriAmatiBaroque InstrumentsInstrument designs were improvedFinest violins in history came from shops of:StradivariusGuarneriAmati
11The Baroque Orchestra Violin strings made of gut Woodwinds made of woodvalveless, or “natural”Horns and trumpetsTimpaniThe Baroque OrchestraBaroque violin strings made of gut (today’s are of steel)Woodwinds were all made of woodTrumpet moves from purely military use to orchestral memberHorns and trumpets were valveless, called “natural” instrumentsCould play in only one key at a timeTimpani occasionally added to the orchestra
12Baroque Keyboard Instruments OrganHarpsichordClavichordBaroque Keyboard instrumentsOrgan: used at church and homeHarpsichord: strings are plucked by quills, cannot sustain tonesClavichord: metal levers exert pressure on stringsharpsichord
13The Baroque Sonata* 1. Sonata da camera* 2. Sonata da chiesa* Written for 1–8 instrumentsMost often: two violins and continuo*Handel Trio sonata*Sonata TypesThe sonata was the most popular form of chamber musicEarly sonatas: one sectional movement or several contrasting movementsSonata da camera: chamber sonata, typically a group of stylized dancesSonata da chiesa: church sonata, more serious and contrapuntal, four movements, tempo sequence slow-fast-slow-fastWritten for 1–8 instrumentsFavored combination: two violins and continuoTrio sonataTrio sonata: sonata printed on three staves of music, actually performed by four players (continuo requires two players)
14Baroque Concerto* Contrast and unity Latin concertare (“to contend with”)Opposition of different forcesBaroque ConcertoBasic elements of Baroque: contrast and unityConcerto: from the Latin concertare (“to contend with”)Instrumental form based on the opposition of different forces
15Two Types of Concerto Organ concerto #1: Solo Concerto* Solo concerto: one instrument set against the orchestraConcerto grosso: small group of soloists set against orchestraConcertino: small group in the concerto grossoRipieno, or tutti: large group in the concerto grosso
16Two Types of Concerto#2: Concerto Grosso*Harp Concerto
17Two orchestral suites* by Handel Water Music* 1717Music for the Royal Fireworks* 1749Handel and the Orchestral SuiteTwo notable suites by HandelWater MusicMusic for the Royal Fireworks
18Water Music*, Suite in D major, II Royal party on the Thames River in London, July 17, 171722 separate stand-alone piecesHornpipeWater Music, Suite in D major, I and II (Listening Guide)Royal party on the Thames River in London, July 17, 171722 numbersPerformed without continuo (no harpsichord on a boat)Divided into three suites
19First performance April 17, 1717. Daily Courant : The King took Water at Whitehall in an open Barge ... and went up the [Thames] River towards Chelsea. Many other Barges with Persons of Quality attended, and so great a Number of Boats, that the whole River in a manner was cover'd; a City Company's Barge was employ'd for the Musick, wherein were 50 instruments of all sorts, who play'd all the Way from Lambeth the finest Symphonies, compos'd express for this Occasion, by Mr. Hendel; which his Majesty liked so well, that he caus'd it to be plaid over three times in going and returning. At Eleven his Majesty went a-shore at Chelsea where a Supper was prepar'd, and then there was another very fine Consort of Musick, which lasted till 2; after which, his Majesty came again into his Barge, and return'd the same Way, the Musick continuing to play till he landed.
23Oratorio* and Opera* Similarities Overture*Aria*Da capo al Fine*Recitative*Ensemble numbers:Duet*, (Trio*, Quartet*, etc.)Chorus*The Components of OperaRecitative: musical declamation, plot is advancedSecco: accompanied only by continuo instrumentsAccompagnato: accompanied by the orchestraAria: a song, usually highly emotional, stands out from recitativeDa capo aria: a ternary (A-B-A) song formEnsemble numbers: characters join together in songDuet: two voicesTrio: three voicesQuartet, etc.: four voices, and so onChorus: used to back up solo voices, or functions independentlyOverture: instrumental number begins the operaSinfonias: instrumental interludes between acts and scenesLibretto: the text of the workLibrettist: the person who writes the text
24Oratorio and Opera Differences LanguageItalian vs. EnglishStagingSubject matterLibretto (Librettist)Sacred vs. Sacred Text
25Baroque Oratorio* Oratorio Performed by solo voices SopranoAltoTenorBass (or, Baritone)large chorus (SATB)orchestrano staging or costumes24. Handel and the OratorioThe OratorioOratorio: large-scale dramatic genre with religious or Biblical textPerformed by solo voices, chorus, orchestraNo staging or costumes
26Handel: Messiah* Premiered in Dublin in 1742 Written in 24 days Libretto*: in three separate partsCompilation of Old and New Testament textHandel: Messiah, Nos. 18, 44 (Listening Guide)Premiered in Dublin in 1742Written in 24 daysLibretto: compilation of Old and New Testament
27Aria vs. Recitative Recitative* Aria* Text is centered on the plot Simple to singNo melody or rhythmic complexitiesSimple chords accompanied on the harpischord*Aria*Text focuses on the character’s feelingsHighly difficult music requires a virtuoso vocal techniqueMemorable tunesFull orchestral accompaniment
28Recitative from Theodora Lorraine Hunt LiebersonAh! Whither should we fly, or fly from whom?The Lord is still the same, today, for ever,And his protection here, and everywhere.Though gath'ring round our destin'd headsThe storm now thickens, and looks big with fate,Still shall thy servants wait on Thee, O Lord,And in thy saving mercy put their trust.
29Messiah: Soprano aria “Rejoice greatly (da capo aria)Three-part form:I: ChristmasRecitative: both secco and accompagnatoSoprano aria “Rejoice greatly” (da capo aria)Melisma
30Baroque Opera* The New Genre of the Baroque Era Large-scale musical drama combiningSingingPlot (Secular)ActingSceneryCostumesInstrumental music21. Baroque OperaOpera: a large scale music drama combining poetry, acting, scenery, costumes, singing, and instrumental music