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Music Appreciation (MUSI 115) Class #4 Baroque Music, conclusion George Frideric Handel 1685-1759.

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Presentation on theme: "Music Appreciation (MUSI 115) Class #4 Baroque Music, conclusion George Frideric Handel 1685-1759."— Presentation transcript:

1 Music Appreciation (MUSI 115) Class #4 Baroque Music, conclusion George Frideric Handel

2 JS Bach…… "[Handel] is the only person I would wish to see before I die, and the only person I would wish to be, were I not Bach."

3 George Frideric Handel German-born composer of Italian, French, and German styles catering to English audiences

4 George Frideric Handel Studied in Italy International career Impresario and theater owner Made and lost a fortune Founded the London and the Royal Academy of Music

5 Halle, (West) Germany

6 Handel’s Vocal Music 42 operas* 29 oratorios* 129 cantatas* Expanded dramatic intensity of the chorus*

7 Handel’s Instrumental Music Prolific composer of instrumental music Orchestral suites ▫Water Music ▫Music for the Royal Fireworks

8 HWV numbers Händel-Werke-Verzeichnis ▫(abbreviated as HWV)  Catalogue of Handel's Works ▫London HomeLondon Home

9 Handel’s Instrumental Music

10 Baroque Instruments Instrument designs were improved Finest violins in history came from shops of Stradivarius Guarneri Amati

11 The Baroque Orchestra Violin strings made of gut Woodwinds made of wood valveless, or “natural” Horns and trumpets Hornstrumpets Timpani

12 Baroque Keyboard Instruments Organ Harpsichord Clavichord harpsichord

13 The Baroque Sonata* Written for 1–8 instruments Most often: two violins and continuo* Handel Trio sonata* 1. Sonata da camera* 2. Sonata da chiesa*

14 Baroque Concerto* Contrast and unity Latin concertare (“to contend with”) Opposition of different forces

15 Organ concerto #1: Solo Concerto* Two Types of Concerto

16 #2: Concerto Grosso*  Harp Concerto Harp Concerto

17 Two orchestral suites* by Handel Water Music* 1717 Music for the Royal Fireworks* 1749

18 Water Music*, Suite in D major, II Royal party on the Thames River in London, July 17, separate stand-alone pieces ▫HornpipeHornpipe

19 First performance April 17, Daily Courant : The King took Water at Whitehall in an open Barge... and went up the [Thames] River towards Chelsea. Many other Barges with Persons of Quality attended, and so great a Number of Boats, that the whole River in a manner was cover'd; a City Company's Barge was employ'd for the Musick, wherein were 50 instruments of all sorts, who play'd all the Way from Lambeth the finest Symphonies, compos'd express for this Occasion, by Mr. Hendel; which his Majesty liked so well, that he caus'd it to be plaid over three times in going and returning. At Eleven his Majesty went a-shore at Chelsea where a Supper was prepar'd, and then there was another very fine Consort of Musick, which lasted till 2; after which, his Majesty came again into his Barge, and return'd the same Way, the Musick continuing to play till he landed.

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21 Royal Fireworks Music* 1749 Golden Jubilee in 2002

22 Two types of vocal music… Oratorio* Opera*

23 Oratorio* and Opera* Similarities Overture* Aria* ▫Da capo al Fine* Recitative* Ensemble numbers: ▫ Duet*, (Trio*, Quartet*, etc.) Chorus*

24 Oratorio and Opera Differences Language ▫Italian vs. English Staging Subject matter ▫Libretto (Librettist) ▫Sacred vs. Sacred Text

25 Baroque Oratorio* Oratorio ▫Performed by solo voices  Soprano  Alto  Tenor  Bass (or, Baritone) ▫large chorus (SATB) ▫orchestra ▫no staging or costumes

26 Handel: Messiah* Premiered in Dublin in 1742 Written in 24 days Libretto*: in three separate parts Compilation of Old and New Testament text

27 Aria vs. Recitative Recitative* ▫Text is centered on the plot ▫Simple to sing ▫No melody or rhythmic complexities ▫Simple chords accompanied on the harpischord* Aria* ▫Text focuses on the character’s feelings ▫Highly difficult music requires a virtuoso vocal technique ▫Memorable tunes ▫Full orchestral accompaniment

28 Recitative from Theodora Lorraine Hunt Lieberson Ah! Whither should we fly, or fly from whom? The Lord is still the same, today, for ever, And his protection here, and everywhere. Though gath'ring round our destin'd heads The storm now thickens, and looks big with fate, Still shall thy servants wait on Thee, O Lord, And in thy saving mercy put their trust.

29 Messiah: Soprano aria “Rejoice greatlySoprano aria “Rejoice greatly Melisma (da capo aria)

30 Baroque Opera* The New Genre of the Baroque Era Large-scale musical drama combining Singing Plot (Secular) Acting Scenery Costumes Instrumental music

31 Baroque Opera: Semele

32 Voice assignments* Soprano Alto ▫Mezzo-Soprano or Contralto  Replacing castrati Tenor Baritone/Bass

33 Julius Cesare (1724) Montserrat Caballe ▫“Vadoro pupille”“Vadoro pupille”

34 Legacy Fell out of popularity after his death Original instruments revival (1970s) Bel Canto revival (1960s)

35 CD #1, Track “Hallelujah” Chorus from Messiah (HWV 56) Listen for… ▫Enormous, vertical columns of sound; ▫SATB voicing ▫Full orchestral sound ▫Minimal contrapuntal motion

36 Back to Bach… The Passion According To St. John (1724) ▫Recitative: “…Then Peter thought about the words of Jesus. He went out and he began to sob bitterly…”Recitative: “…Then Peter thought about the words of Jesus. He went out and he began to sob bitterly…”

37 Contrapuntal Devices Original:Inversion: Retrograde:Retrograde inversion: Augmentation:Diminution:


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