Presentation on theme: "Monday - Warm -Up Benjamin Franklin Most famous colonial scientist.Most famous colonial scientist. Published Poor Richard’s Almanac. Book of advise.Published."— Presentation transcript:
Monday - Warm -Up Benjamin Franklin Most famous colonial scientist.Most famous colonial scientist. Published Poor Richard’s Almanac. Book of advise.Published Poor Richard’s Almanac. Book of advise. Inventions included: lightning rod, stove, bifocal glasses.Inventions included: lightning rod, stove, bifocal glasses. Never patented any of his inventions, b/c he said “I want everyone to be able to enjoy my inventions.” (Can you imagine creating something that could make you a millionaire and just giving it away b/c everyone should be able to enjoy it.Never patented any of his inventions, b/c he said “I want everyone to be able to enjoy my inventions.” (Can you imagine creating something that could make you a millionaire and just giving it away b/c everyone should be able to enjoy it. Started the first subscription library in the Colonies.Started the first subscription library in the Colonies. Opened an academy (later became University of Pennsylvania)Opened an academy (later became University of Pennsylvania)
Monday - Warm - Up Colonial Assemblies Many colonies elected representatives to help make laws and set policy. Colonists based their assemblies on English Parliament. Parliament is a bicameral legislature - meaning it has TWO houses (bi-cameral) Virginia had the first assembly in North America - House of Burgesses. Someone in the House of Burgesses was called a Burgess. In New England, the center of political life was the Town Meeting. In the Middle Colonies… politics were a combination of the legislature and the town meetings. In the South, people were generally too far spread out, so things were taken care of at the county level.
Tuesday - Warm-Up Colonial Trade Despite colonial complaints, trade restrictions continued with the passage of the Molasses Act of 1733. Smuggling began to be an answer to the restrictions for the colonists. Some merchants also took part in the triangular trade - sent Rum to Africa, slaves & gold to the West Indies, and then molasses / Sugar / Slaves to the 13 Colonies
Navigation Acts Tuesday Warm-Up 1.Why did England pass the Navigation Acts? mercantilism The Navigation Acts were efforts to put the theory of mercantilism into actual practice. Beginning in 1650, Parliament acted to combat the threat of the rapidly growing Dutch trade. Under the provisions of this legislation, trade with the colonies was to be conducted only in English or colonial ships. Certain "enumerated" items (such as sugar, tobacco and Indigo) were to be shipped only within the empire. Trade destined for nations outside the empire had to go first to England. The American colonists were never fully comfortable with those laws, but became ardently opposed with the passage of the Sugar Act of 1733. The most significant result of the Navigation Acts upon American history was the stifling of colonial manufacturing and increased resentment against the mother country. 1.Why did England pass the Navigation Acts? mercantilism The Navigation Acts were efforts to put the theory of mercantilism into actual practice. Beginning in 1650, Parliament acted to combat the threat of the rapidly growing Dutch trade. Under the provisions of this legislation, trade with the colonies was to be conducted only in English or colonial ships. Certain "enumerated" items (such as sugar, tobacco and Indigo) were to be shipped only within the empire. Trade destined for nations outside the empire had to go first to England. The American colonists were never fully comfortable with those laws, but became ardently opposed with the passage of the Sugar Act of 1733. The most significant result of the Navigation Acts upon American history was the stifling of colonial manufacturing and increased resentment against the mother country.
Section 1:Trouble on the Frontier Section 2:Consequences of the French and Indian War Section 3:Trouble over Taxes Section 4:New Taxes and Tensions CHAPTER 6 Conflicts in the Colonies
SECTION 1 Trouble on the Frontier Colonists’ Relations w/ American Indians As more settlers came to America, tensions w/ Indians grew and finally erupted into violence. A conflict called King Phillips War set the settlers militia against the Indians. Indian raids led to America retaliation, which led to Indian raids, which led to retaliation, etc… Relationships with Indians.
SECTION 1 Conflicts with France England & France became bitter rivals for land in North America. Wars were fought between the two countries for the better part of 25 years between 1680’s – 1700’s. Colonists new they had to be prepared for problems with the French. This prompted Ben Franklin and other Colonial leaders to try and come up with a plan against the French. Franklin came up with the idea for the Albany Plan of the Union. This plan called for the colonies to unite and fight as 1. However the colonial government did not want to give up each states power, and the Plan was thwarted. Albany Plan of the Union Cartoon. What does it mean?
SECTION 1 French & Indian War France & England were clashing over fur trading rights in the Ohio River Valley. George Washington is sent to tell the French to leave the territory. French laugh and send Washington back scolded. French pick up allies in Indians. English go to attack French, but to their surprise, the French were already on their way. Washington is force to build Fort Necessity. French attack the ghetto fort and leave many casualties. The English knew little about fighting frontier wars, so they had trouble fighting the French in America. Turning point of the war was when British General James Wolfe captured the capitol city of Quebec. From that point on, the British won most of the important battles.
SECTION 1 Treaty of Paris 1763 Finally, in 1763 Great Britain defeated the French and made France sign the Treaty of Paris 1763. The treaty redrew the map of North America. France gave up Canada as well as all lands west of the Mississippi. (Except for New Orleans) This made Britain a major power in North America and made Spain the only threat to Britain. Original 13 Colonies New Land acquired In Treaty
SECTION 1 Trouble on the Frontier Question: What were the effects of the French and Indian War on the British colonies?
SECTION 1 Trouble on the Frontier CauseEffects French and Indian WarBritish colonies grew in size. Britain became a dominant power in the Americas. Spain grew in power in the Americas.
SECTION 2 Consequences of the French and Indian War The Frontier The westernmost land was called the frontier. The first settlers to move to the frontier were called Pioneers. The Appalachian Mountains were a major blockage to pioneers wanting to settle the frontier. With the end of the French & Indian War, the frontier opened and more pioneers moved west of the Appalachian Mountains. Appalachian Mountains
SECTION 2 Conflict in the Ohio River Valley British believed they had the rights to the French land of the Ohio River Valley. The land flourished with wonderful soil, and lots of wildlife. (Oh yeah, and lots of Indians too.) B/c they were taking away the Indians land, this led to constant conflict between the two. Indians began to band together to fight against the British. Pontiac’s Rebellion – for 3 years, Chief Pontiac his Indian Army attacked and killed many British at their Forts. Eventually he had to surrender b/c of lost troops.
SECTION 2 The Proclamation of 1763 B/c of Tensions w/ Indians, complaints grew to the King of England to do something about this problem. His response was the Proclamation of 1763. This law banned the British from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. It created a border between Colonial and Indian lands. With all of the new land to the West of the Appalachian Mountains, this law upset many colonists. (Dr. & Arm story) The angry colonists did not like the Kings attempt at controlling them.
SECTION 2 Consequences of the French and Indian War Question: What was the purpose of the Proclamation of 1763, and how effective was it?
SECTION 2 Consequences of the French and Indian War Proclamation of 1763 Purpose: to keep settlers from fighting with American Indians by not allowing settlement across the Appalachian Mountains Effectiveness: not very effective; colonists crossed the Appalachians and continued to fight with American Indians
SECTION 3 Trouble over Colonists’ Rights Raising Taxes Britain had racked up major debt in their war against France. Prime Minister George Grenville asked Parliament to tax the colonists. (not to high, in fact, not even as much as the British in England) Sugar Act – At Grenville’s request, Parliament passed the Sugar Act (1764). This put a tax on all sugar and sugar products. This was the first act passed to specifically to raise money in the colonies rather than to regulate trade. Parliament also began checking for smuggling and making things harder for colonial merchants.
SECTION 3 Taxation without Representation Parliaments actions upset many colonists. Merchants thought that the taxes were unfair and hurt business. James Otis – one of the first to protest “taxation w/out Representation. Argued that they must have representation in Parliament if they are to be taxed. W/no voice in Parliament, the taxes were against the Colonist’s rights. Samuel Adams – agreed with Otis about taxation. Together they formed the Committees of Correspondence. Committees of Correspondence – groups that contacted other towns to inform them about what was going on. Boycott – a way for colonists to challenge the taxes.
SECTION 3 The Stamp Act B/c of the Colonial boycott, not much $$ was coming in from the Sugar Tax. So Grenville needed a new plan. A Ha! Stamp Act – affected most colonists. Had to get a stamp on every piece of paper you bought. The first effort to raise money by taxing the colonists. Sons of Liberty – Secret societies formed to help protest the taxes. Sam Adams was a leader. Sometimes used violence to threaten tax collectors. Patrick Henry – Spoke out openly against what the British were doing. During speech he was accused of committing Treason. He said, “if this be treason, then make the most of it !” Sons of Liberty protesting The Stamp Act.
SECTION 3 Repealing the Stamp Act As word of Henry’s speeches spread throughout the colonies, Colonists decided to meet to discuss the issue. Stamp Act Congress – When the colonists met to decide how to handle the Stamp Act. They issued a declaration asking Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. As pressure grew to repeal the Stamp Act, Parliament caved and Repealed it in 1766. But to show their displeasure with the colonists challenging their authority, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act. Declaratory Act – said that Parliament had the right to pass whatever laws it saw fit in the colonies. (in other words… Parliament makes the rules, not the colonists) Parliament members having A funeral for the Stamp Act
SECTION 3 Trouble over Taxes New Taxes Reasons Colonists Disliked the Taxes: 1.taxation without representation 2.reflected British efforts to gain more control 3.challenged the colonists’ efforts to be more autonomous 4.hurt colonial economy
SECTION 4 New Taxes and Tensions The Townshend Acts In 1767, Parliament again flexed their muscles and passed the Townshend Acts. Put a duty on many goods, so the colonists couldn’t boycott. (lead, paper, tea, paint, glass) To quiet all of the problems in the colonies, the King sent over troops. He used the $$ from the Townshend acts to pay these people. This violated an agreement never to have a standing army in the colonies w/out their consent. British officials used writs of assistance (blank search warrants) to enforce their taxes and to stop smuggling. The colonists responded once again by boycotting Women who supported the boycott were called the Daughters of Liberty. Story about Liberty (Hancock ship that was seized b/c of his views on Acts) Troops are sent to Boston to Quiet troubles.
SECTION 4 Boston Massacre People of Boston were upset about having the army in their city w/out their consent. Both sides disliked each other. Name calling and fights between soldiers and locals often broke out. Tensions finally exploded on March 5, 1770. Boston Massacre Story Sons of Liberty used this event as a form of propaganda (info. Giving only one side of the story). John Adams defended the soldiers. (said it was self- defense) Then soldiers were found guilty, but only got a slap on the wrist.
SECTION 4 A Tax on Tea To reduce the tensions, Parliament repealed most of the Townshend Acts. The one part they didn’t repeal was the tax on Tea. Even w/the boycott, Tea was popular in the Colonies. British East India Company tries to help out king, by selling directly to Colonies. King gives them a monopoly. Parliament passes the Tea Act of 1773. Boat arrives in Boston carrying British East India Company tea…. Boston Tea Party.
SECTION 4 The Intolerable Acts To punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passes the Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) 1. Boston Harbor was closed (no $$) Until they paid $$ back for lost tea. 2. Massachusetts Charter was canceled 3. No courts in Massachusetts for British officials. 4. Quartering Act 5. Gen. Gage was appointed new Governor. Really upset the Colonists.
SECTION 4 New Taxes and Tensions Causes Purpose continued protests by the colonists Boston Tea Party to force the colonists to submit to British authority prevent any further protests Results closed Boston Harbor Massachusetts’s charter canceled royal officials allowed to be tried in Britain Quartering Act established for Boston General Thomas Gage new governor of Massachusetts THE INTOLERABLE ACTS
Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 6 1.How did the wars between France and Great Britain affect the British colonists in North America? 2.What region did American pioneers settle during the 1760s, and what happened as a result? 3.How did Americans react when they were taxed by Parliament, in which they were not represented? 1.How did the wars between France and Great Britain affect the British colonists in North America? 2.What region did American pioneers settle during the 1760s, and what happened as a result? 3.How did Americans react when they were taxed by Parliament, in which they were not represented?