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Chapter 28: The Cold War and the American Dream

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1 Chapter 28: The Cold War and the American Dream

2 Section 1: Peacetime Adjustments and the Cold War
“Adjusting to Peace” Now that the war was over, industries were changing over to make goods for ____________________. _________________ won out over female workers in the competitions for jobs. In the aircraft industry, more than 800,000 workers– mostly _________________-- were laid off. “The Postwar Economy” Instead of slowing down, the economy boomed because __________________________that they put off buying during the war. The spending spree led to ___________. ____________ __________ were still in short supply. The demand for goods _____________ and prices _______________.

3 “Labor Unrest and Civil Rights”
The number of ___________________ also increased, as did the demand for __________________ due to loans from the GI Bill. Businessman William Levitt applied _______________ techniques to home building. His neighborhood, _________________, was on Long Island. “Labor Unrest and Civil Rights” With the war over, workers faced with raising prices ______ _________________. In 1946, the United States entered one of the most _________________ years in its history. President Harry S. Truman was a friend of labor, but he feared they would ____________ the nation. He threatened to _____________ all striking railroad workers, but it was settled before he had to carry it out. _________________ were still excluded from prosperity and full equality. Many expected their _______________ service to be recognized, but little had changed. In the South, African Americans who attempted to vote were threatened fired, or even _________________.

4 To deal with these problems, Truman created a __________ on civil rights. He issued an _____________ ending racial segregation and ________________ in the armed forces. He also asked Congress for an ________________ law, but Southern Democrats balked at the proposal. “The Fair Deal” In 1946, the _____________-dominated Congress wanted to block Truman’s programs. When the 1948 presidential election campaign opened, few thought Truman would win, so he took his campaign to _____ _____________. His strategy worked and he won an upset victory over Thomas Dewey. ________________ also gained control of Congress. Truman presented Congress with a package of reforms called the ________________, which created jobs, built public housing, and ended ____________________ in hiring. Congress passed few of his plans, except for low-cost public housing.

5 “Origins of the Cold War”
After WWII, the capitalist Western democracies conflicted with _________________ over their economic and political differences. The most difficult issue was the political future of _________ ____________. After freeing these nations from the Nazis, the ______________ occupied them, including the eastern portion of _______________. When the war ended, ____ installed pro-Soviet governments throughout E. Europe. President Truman believed that Stalin wanted to spread ____ _________ worldwide, and he was determined to protect _____________ from it. As the tensions increased a _____ ______ , a state of hostility w/o direct military conflict, resulted. This threat lasted for decades. “Containing Communism Abroad” The Truman Administration’s main strategy in the Cold War was its _______________ policy, whose goal was to stop the spread of ________________.

6 The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

7 He announced the _________________, which promised aid to people struggling to resist threats to their democratic freedom. In 1948, the alarm over communist control of Eastern Europe led to the formation of ______________, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It included the United States, Canada, and Western European nations. In response, the USSR and Eastern European nations formed the __________________. Hoping to prevent the spread of communism, the United States came up with a plan to revive the war-torn economies of Europe. It was called the ___________________. In June of 1945, the Allies agreed to a temporary division of Germany into 4 zones. The Western powers merged their zones and made plans to unite them as _________ _________________. Berlin was in the eastern zone, still held by ___________. In 1948, Stalin hoped to force the Western powers to abandon the city by blocking access to Berlin.

8 Post-War Germany

9 Truman responded with an __________ of food, fuel and equipment into the city. It became known as the ______________________. In 1949 Stalin called off the blockade. By May 1949, Germany had been divided into communist ______ Germany and democrat __________ Germany.

10 “Fear of Communism at Home”
Truman responded with an __________ of food, fuel and equipment into the city. It became known as the ______________________. In 1949 Stalin called off the blockade. By May 1949, Germany had been divided into communist ______ Germany and democratic __________ Germany. “Fear of Communism at Home” Americans began to fear that ________________ would spread to the U.S. Attention was focused Americans who belonged to the _______________ ___________. 2 famous spy trials made this believable. ___________________, a former state dept. official was accused of passing ____________________ to the USSR. ______________________________ were members of the American Communist Party and were convicted of passing __________________ to the Soviets. They were ____________ in 1953.

11 Under charges that his administration was soft on communism, Truman issued an executive order requiring 3 million gov’t workers to undergo ________________. The anticommunist crusade gave new life to the House Un-American Activities Committee, (______). In 1947, HUAC began targeting actors, directors, and writers in the movie industry. Lists of suspected communists, _____________, circulated among Hollywood movie studios.

12 Section 2: The Korean War and McCarthyism
“The Origins of the Korean War” In Sept. 1949, the Communists defeated the anti-communist Nationalist forces in a civil war in _____. __________________ became the head of the new communist government. Americans were shocked and blamed the ____________________ for failing to stop the revolution. American fear of communism grew. Events in ___________________ contributed to this fear. In 1945, __________________ occupied Korea north of the _________________. American forces took control south of this line. “Fighting Breaks Out in Korea” In June, 1950, North Korean forces crossed the 38th parallel, starting the ________________.

13 “China Enters the Conflict”
Truman viewed Korea as a test for his ___________ _________ and responded promptly. U.S. forces joined with forces from the ____________________, but the U.S. did most of the fighting. Gen. ________ _______________ served as commander of all UN forces. MacArthur’s daring plan to land troops at Inchon pushed the North Koreans across the __________ and then pursued them into North Korea. The UN forces pushed toward the __________, the boundary separating N. Korea and China. The Chinese warned them to stop. “China Enters the Conflict” Communist China saw the UN troops as a threat and warned that further advance would force them into the war. The UN ______________them. MacArthur requested a blockade of China, but Truman refused.

14 “War Ends in Stalemate”
He was afraid it would draw ______________into the war, causing another world war. The general __________________________ to win support for his war aims. He spoke to _________________. Truman viewed MacArthur’s criticism as undermining _______________ of the of the military. As a result, he _______ MacArthur. Despite support for MacArthur, Truman refused to ______________ and most Americans _____________________ Truman. “War Ends in Stalemate” As the war dragged on, it became more _________. In July 1951, truce talks began, but drug on for two years. Truman chose not to run again and the Democrats chose ______________________ as their candidate. Eisenhower agreed to a ________________ to end the war. A ____________ ended the fighting in July Americans felt ____________ by this war.

15 “The Domestic Scene in the Fifties”
Section 3: The Fifties “The Domestic Scene in the Fifties” In 1957 nearly ____ in _____ Americans lived in poverty, especially in the __________. Often, those most affected by urban decay were _____________________ and _______________. In the 1950s, immigration from ___________ greatly increased. Some came through the _____________ and others came _______________. Fearful of being sent back to Mexico, man were forced to work longer for less pay. Once elected, Eisenhower pleased _____________ and __________________ without upsetting moderates and liberals. He kept most of the ______________ programs. He created the Department of _________________.

16 “Changes Sweep America”
During the 1950s, the United States grew by almost _____________ due mostly to the _____________, a sharp increase in the U.S. birthrate following WWII. The baby boom spurred the growth of __________. As suburbs grew, _________________ exploded. Americans also moved from the __________and ___________ to the ________ and ___________. The movement of people to the ____________ increased the population of the warmer states of the S. and SW. ________________ passed New York as the nation’s most populous state. “The American Dream in the Fifties” For millions of mainly ___________ Americans, life in the suburbs was the American dream. In the 1950s, popular magazines, films and television programs praised women for their roles as ______________.

17 “Pop Culture and Rock n’ Roll”
Some women felt __________ or isolated in that role. Those working outside of the home had limited job choices. By the mid-1950s, the economy was booming. Owning the latest car or appliance came to be a symbol of _______________ or success. ________ helped lure buyers to stores and car showrooms. “Pop Culture and Rock n’ Roll” Movie attendance _____________ as more people stayed home to watch TV. By 1960 ____ out of ___ households had a TV. Teenagers fell head over heels for another form of entertainment, __________________. In 1955, ________________ hit it big with “Rock Around the Clock.” Black musicians, such as _______________ held the spotlight with white rockers such as _________________, who became the king of rock n’ roll.

18 “The Election of 1960” The 1960 presidential election was one of the closest in history. _________________, democratic senator from Massachusetts defeated ___________ ______________, Eisenhower’s vice president. At 43, he was the nation’s youngest president and also the first _______________ president. Kennedy and Nixon staged the first ________________________________________. Kennedy’s ____________________ and _____________ helped him win.

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