2ORIGINS OF THE COLD WARAfter being Allies during WWII, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. soon viewed each other with increasing suspicionTheir political differences created a climate of icy tension that plunged the two countries into an era of bitter rivalry known as the Cold WarThe Cold War would dominate global affairs from 1945 until the breakup of the USSR in 1991
3POLITICAL DIFFERENCES At the heart of the tension was a fundamental difference in political systemsAmerica is a democracy that has a capitalist economic system, free elections and competing political partiesIn the U.S.S.R., the sole political party – the Communists – established a totalitarian regime with little or no rights for the citizensSoviets viewed Marx, Engels and Lenin as founders of Communism
4Background - Why a Cold War? Differing aims in EuropeWWII had affected the U.S. and USSR differentlyThe U.S. emerged as the world’s richest and most powerful country: only 400,000 Americans died during the war, and industry and cities remained intact
5Background - Why a Cold War? The USSR was devastated after the war: 20 million deaths (1 in 4 Soviets dead or injured), many cities and factories demolished, farmlands destroyedThese differences meant that the U.S. and the USSR envisioned postwar Europe very differently
6Superpower Aims in Europe United StatesSoviet UnionEncourage democracy to prevent communism from spreadingEncourage communism and worldwide workers’ revolutionGain access to raw materials and markets to fuel industryRebuild economy using E. Europe’s industrial equipment and raw materialsRebuild European governments to promote stability and create new markets for U.S. goodsControl E. Europe to protect Soviet borders and balance U.S. influence in the westReunite Germany to stabilize it and increase the security of EuropeKeep Germany divided so that it couldn’t wage war again
7Background - Why a Cold War? These differing aims brought the two Superpowers into conflictthe U.S. was afraid of a global communist conspiracy led by the USSR, and the USSR feared that the U.S.was calling for a worldwide capitalist expansion
8Background - Why a Cold War? During the war, Soviet troops had remained behind in each of the Eastern European countries “liberated” from the Nazis
9Background - Why a Cold War? After the war, Stalin used these troops to help install communist governments, creating buffer states.Stalin believed that capitalism and communism could not coexist and that war was certain. By creating buffer states, he was hoping to protect the USSR from invasion by the west.
10Winston Churchill called the result an “Iron Curtain” that had descended on Europe and was separating East from West.The Iron Curtain was a metaphor: on one side were the free nations of Western Europe, on the other side were the communist nations controlled by the USSR.
11CHURCHILL: “IRON CURTAIN” ACROSS EUROPE Europe was now divided into two political regions; a mostly democratic Western Europe and a communist Eastern EuropeChurchill, right, in Fulton, Missouri delivering his “iron curtain” speech, 1946
15The U.S. Response Containment: the U.S. said it wouldn’t interfere where communism alreadyexisted, but it wouldprevent any expansionby creating alliances andhelping countries resistSoviet advances
16The U.S. ResponseThe Truman Doctrine: the U.S. would help countries resisting communism by giving them monetary aid
17The U.S. Response Three policies (con’t) The Marshall Plan: the U.S. authorized a total of $13 billion in aid to any European country that requested itAccording to the cartoon, what is the relationship between the U.S. and Europe?
18SOVIETS DOMINATE EASTERN EUROPE The Soviet Union suffered an estimated 20 million WWII deaths, half of whom were civilianAs a result they felt justified in their claim to Eastern EuropeFurthermore, they felt they needed Eastern Europe as a buffer against future German aggression
19STALIN INSTALLS PUPPET GOVERNMENTS Stalin installed “satellite” communist governments in the Eastern European countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and East GermanyThis after promising “free elections” for Eastern Europe at the Yalta ConferenceIn a 1946 speech, Stalin said communism and capitalism were incompatible – and another war was inevitable
21The “Iron Curtain”From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
22THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE The “Truman Doctrine” was first used in Greece and Turkey in the late 1940s, vowed to provide aid (money & military supplies) to support “free peoples who are resisting outside pressures”By 1950, the U.S. had given $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey
23The Marshall Plan helped Western Europe recover economically Post-war Europe was devastated economicallyIn June 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a U.S. aid package to European nationsWestern Europe accepted the help, while Eastern Europe rejected the aidOver the next four years 16 European countries received $13 billion in U.S. aidBy 1952 Western Europe’s economy was flourishingThe Marshall Plan helped Western Europe recover economically