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A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger and Class.  Conflict between the U.S and the Soviet Union began gradually. For years they dealt with:  Division in Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger and Class.  Conflict between the U.S and the Soviet Union began gradually. For years they dealt with:  Division in Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger and Class


3  Conflict between the U.S and the Soviet Union began gradually. For years they dealt with:  Division in Europe  Postwar Economic Aid  Atomic Bomb  American diplomats sought peace with a suspicious Soviet Union  What is the Potsdam Conference?

4  The conflict was over who would control Europe  Red Army had swept over Poland and the Balkans, laying basis for Soviet Domination.  American and British Forces liberated W. Europe.  Soviets were intent on imposing Communist governments loyal to Moscow, the U.S. wanted self-determination.  Due to suspicion, Stalin created the Iron Curtain.  Baltic to Adriatic Sea – created soviet satellites  Germany was the key  Ignored the Potsdam Conference, countries were treated as economic units.  Britain and U.S. refused to allow Russia to take reparations from the western zone.  *Map

5  Stalin used Communism to:  Protect Soviet security  Advance international power  Climax of communistic spread occurred in Czechoslovakia.  Free government was removed and replaced with communism.  Grants the Soviet Union a foothold in Central Europe.  The Western Nations, remembering Hitler, begin to fear Stalin might be an aggressor.

6  WWII:  Had taken 15-20 million Russian lives  Destroyed 30,000 factories  Tore up 40,000 mile of RR track  Outside aid was central to Soviet reconstruction  Wartime ambassador Averell Harriman felt economic aid was our key card (ace)  Two forms of assistance:  Loan  Lend-lease  1945 – Soviets requested 6 billion for Reconstruction  Lend Lease proved not to be the solution  May 11, 1945 – Truman terminated all shipments to Europe – Stalin termed this…brutal.  Slowly Russia recovered and due to lack of U.S. aid, Stalin was convinced of Western hostility – this deepened the antagonism between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

7  The Atomic Bomb controversy was tremendous. Post wartime situation means – arms race.   Stalin learned of the Manhattan Project via espionage. Result – Soviet Atomic Program.  After the war the U.S. developed a disarmament plan.  Control of fissionable material  Control of processing plants  Control of the stock pile of American bombs  Bernard Baruch was appointed to present the plan to the UN. Followed the advice of Ike.  Ike cited the rapid demobilization of American forces (12 million to 2 million) to argue that we can’t at this time limit our ability to produce, or use our powerful weapons.  Baruch Plan placed emphasis on inspections that would preserve the atomic power of the U.S.

8  The Soviets responded, diplomat Andrei Gromyko presented a plan calling for the total ban of production, the use of new weapons, plus destruction of existing bombs.  The Soviets had a large army, and would be strong in conventional war.  No agreement was possible  The U.S. emphasized inspection and control  Soviets sought disarmament  The superpowers agree to disagree  Each took advantage of wartime gains  Soviets acquired new territory  U.S. maintained its economic and strategic advantage  Result…”The Cold War.”

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10  Form groups, rejoice at having been issued a plan to explain to the class. Create a GIST statement to summarize the plan and list important information as needed.  Containment  The Truman Doctrine  The Marshall Plan  The Western Military Alliance (NATO)  The Berlin Blockade

11  Book definition: The policy to prevent communism abroad  The US wanted to stop the spread of the ideas of communism in Europe. Containment was the policy created by the US to try and accomplish this.  George Marshall  Dean Acheson  George Kennan

12  Truman wanted to give Greece and Turkey economic aid and military support to prevent communist revolutions.

13  George Marshall proposed a big economic aid program to rebuild Western European nations torn from the war

14  Based on North Atlantic Treaty of 1949  System of defense where its members agree to come together against an attacking party

15  Soviets blocked West Allies’ railways, roads, and canals – wanted to force Allies to supply Berlin with food, fuel, and aid  Allies respond with Berlin airlift  Embarrassment of Soviets

16  By the time Truman left office in 1953 the Cold War had taken global proportions.  Two goals of the military system:  U.S. armed forces should be unified into an integrated military system  New institutions to coordinate military and diplomatic strategies  Congress passed the National Security Act  It established a Department of Defense with 3 separate service branches – Army, Navy, Air Force  Established the CIA  Provided for the National Security Council (NSC) – Security Secretaries, Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense

17  Air Force emerges as the dominate force in the Atomic Age  Truman favored the AF with his military budget. B-29’s replaced with B-36’s.  Military planners receive support when Soviets detonate an A-Bomb.  Truman turns to the Hydrogen Bomb to maintain nuclear supremacy.  H- Bomb is 1,000 times greater than the A-Bomb  New National Defense Policy (NSC – 68) increases defense budget, spending $13-45 billion.  Proves Truman wants to win the Cold War regardless of cost.

18  The conflict developed slowly in Asia  At the Yalta Conference – U.S. and USSR agreed to a Far Eastern balance of power  USSR dominated Northeast Asia  U.S. controls the Pacific including Japan  General McArthur was in charge of the Japanese occupation and denied Soviets any role in reconstruction. Supervised the Japanese government into a Constitutional Democracy. No communists.  Tested Atomic Bombs at Bikini Island (1946-1949)  China was between the Soviet and the U.S. spheres  China was divided at the end of WW2  Nationalist – Chiang Kai Shek (South)  Communist Mao Tse Tung (North)  The Nationalists had American backing (political/economic) plus Soviet recognition  When USSR left Manchuria, Mao gained control of the resources  Chiang attempted to get Manchuria, but this exposed him to Mao’s forces. This ended a chance for peace which Marshall sought. (1947) – Chinese Civil War

19  Mao’s forces drove the Nationalists out of Manchuria and advanced across the Yangtze River  Acheson – released the White Paper – justifying American Policy in China (no intervention)  Military advisors told Congress that the Chinese defeat was due to the Nationalists terrible leadership  Republican senators called the White Paper a “do nothing policy”  Nationalists flee to Formosa (Taiwan)  1949 – Mao and Stalin sign the Sino Soviet Treaty – China is now in the Russian Orbit  At first the State department refused to recognize China’s regime change  To compensate for China – the U.S. focuses on Japan  State Department encouraged Japanese Industry  Pentagon expanded American bases on the Japanese islands  Occupation ends in 1952 with Japan as an ally  Cold War is now in Asia

20  Showdown between the U.S. and USSR  1945 – Korea was divided at the 38 th Parallel  North Korea – Kim II Sung (Russian Occupied)  South Korea – Syngman Rhee (U.S. Occupied)  UN plea for elections fell on deaf ears  Both superpowers left Korea in 1949, Russia did train the well equipped N. Koreans, the U.S. gave limited assistance to the South  June 25, 1950 – N. Korea advances across the 38 th parallel  It’s thought Stalin ordered the attack to expand the Soviet sphere, but Kim II Sung may have acted on his own  Truman saw the invasion as Soviet aggression  Communism in Asia was likened to Hitler and Mussolini  Truman convened the National Security Council  Condemned N. Korea as the aggressor  Within a few weeks, American soldiers from Japan were in S. Korea  Korea was a police action, and the U.S. was at war with a Soviet satellite



23  N. Korea found early success – but finally the U.S. forces halted the advance at Pusan.  Gen. McArthur changed the war complexion with an amphibious assault on Inchon. The N. Korean forces in the South were cut off and destroyed.  Truman’s New Goal – Korean Unification  Ignored a warning from Peking, and received bad advice from Acheson and McArthur.  The UN forces advanced on N. Korea, to the Yalu River and were completely destroyed by a Chinese counterattack.  McArthur was able to stabilize the fighting at the 38 th parallel.  Truman ended his reunifying  McArthur said this was a mistake – “No substitute for victory.”  Truman removed him from command, back in America – McArthur was greeted by huge crowds.  General Omar Bradley warned Truman that a showdown in Asia would be the wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, against the wrong enemy  The Korean War settled into a stalemate at the 38 th Parallel

24  By defending S. Korea, Truman had achieved his primary goal, but by not achieving unification he had humiliated the U.S. in the eyes of the world  Result – U.S. massive rearmament  NSC – 68  Expanded Army (3.5 million)  Defense budget of 50 billion/year  U.S. acquired military bases in Morocco and Saudi Arabia  USSR and U.S. conflict placed the U.S. in a situation committed to a global war against the USSR

25  1940’s – 1950’s – American public concerned with overseas issues  Republicans seized the opportunity  Dissatisfaction with post war economics  Fear of Communism  1952 – Republicans retake White House (1 st time in 20 years.)  Truman Troubles – “To err is Truman…”  Two weaknesses – Fondness for old friends, lack of political vision  Postwar mood was not conducive for an extension of New Deal reforms  Prices and wages rose quickly  Two critical strikes: walkout by coal miners, and railroad strike  Truman allowed increased wages, but this rose prices  Employment Act 1946 – Council of Economic Advisors to aid the President for state of the economy

26  Vetoed the GOP measure to give tax cuts to the wealthy  Congress overrode his veto of the Taft-Hartley Act – it outlawed specific unfair labor union activities (closed shop and secondary boycotts)  Democrats try to get Truman to let Ike run, but he instead gives the “Give ‘em hell campaign.”  Defeats Dixiecrats Strom Thurmond and Progressive Henry Wallace  Defeats the GOP candidate Thomas E. Dewey

27  The Cold War brought the belief that subversion was a threat.  Canadian officials uncovered a Soviet Spy Ring  1948 – Whittaker Chambers accused Alger Hiss of being a soviet spy and giving state department documents to him. Hiss convicted of treason.  Loyalty Review Board dismissed workers as security risks if there was any reasonable doubt.  Justice Department charged 11 members of the Communist Party with the threat of a coup. They received prison sentences.  1950 – Klaus Fuchs (British Scientist) admitted giving the Russians atomic Bomb information  American Communists Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were charged with transmitting atomic secrets to the Soviets. They were executed for their crimes.

28  Senator Joe McCarthy stated he had a list of 205 members of the Communist Party working in the State Department  His Wheeling Speech triggered a 4 ½ year crusade against Communism.  He failed to unearth one communist in the government.  He labeled Acheson (Red Dean) and went after Marshall  Drew support from Catholics, Ethnic Groups – Irish, Polish, Italians, who normally voted Democratic – to defeat the enemy at home  Republicans rise to power  Red Scare  Stalemate in Korea  Ike and Nixon  Korea – an honorable end through diplomacy  Armistice was signed with the death of Stalin, Korea left divided  McCarthy fades from history

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