Presentation on theme: "A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger and Class. Conflict between the U.S and the Soviet Union began gradually. For years they dealt with: Division in Europe."— Presentation transcript:
Conflict between the U.S and the Soviet Union began gradually. For years they dealt with: Division in Europe Postwar Economic Aid Atomic Bomb American diplomats sought peace with a suspicious Soviet Union What is the Potsdam Conference?
The conflict was over who would control Europe Red Army had swept over Poland and the Balkans, laying basis for Soviet Domination. American and British Forces liberated W. Europe. Soviets were intent on imposing Communist governments loyal to Moscow, the U.S. wanted self-determination. Due to suspicion, Stalin created the Iron Curtain. Baltic to Adriatic Sea – created soviet satellites Germany was the key Ignored the Potsdam Conference, countries were treated as economic units. Britain and U.S. refused to allow Russia to take reparations from the western zone. *Map
Stalin used Communism to: Protect Soviet security Advance international power Climax of communistic spread occurred in Czechoslovakia. Free government was removed and replaced with communism. Grants the Soviet Union a foothold in Central Europe. The Western Nations, remembering Hitler, begin to fear Stalin might be an aggressor.
WWII: Had taken 15-20 million Russian lives Destroyed 30,000 factories Tore up 40,000 mile of RR track Outside aid was central to Soviet reconstruction Wartime ambassador Averell Harriman felt economic aid was our key card (ace) Two forms of assistance: Loan Lend-lease 1945 – Soviets requested 6 billion for Reconstruction Lend Lease proved not to be the solution May 11, 1945 – Truman terminated all shipments to Europe – Stalin termed this…brutal. Slowly Russia recovered and due to lack of U.S. aid, Stalin was convinced of Western hostility – this deepened the antagonism between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
The Atomic Bomb controversy was tremendous. Post wartime situation means – arms race. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t19kvUiHvAE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t19kvUiHvAE Stalin learned of the Manhattan Project via espionage. Result – Soviet Atomic Program. After the war the U.S. developed a disarmament plan. Control of fissionable material Control of processing plants Control of the stock pile of American bombs Bernard Baruch was appointed to present the plan to the UN. Followed the advice of Ike. Ike cited the rapid demobilization of American forces (12 million to 2 million) to argue that we can’t at this time limit our ability to produce, or use our powerful weapons. Baruch Plan placed emphasis on inspections that would preserve the atomic power of the U.S.
The Soviets responded, diplomat Andrei Gromyko presented a plan calling for the total ban of production, the use of new weapons, plus destruction of existing bombs. The Soviets had a large army, and would be strong in conventional war. No agreement was possible The U.S. emphasized inspection and control Soviets sought disarmament The superpowers agree to disagree Each took advantage of wartime gains Soviets acquired new territory U.S. maintained its economic and strategic advantage Result…”The Cold War.”
Form groups, rejoice at having been issued a plan to explain to the class. Create a GIST statement to summarize the plan and list important information as needed. Containment The Truman Doctrine The Marshall Plan The Western Military Alliance (NATO) The Berlin Blockade
Book definition: The policy to prevent communism abroad The US wanted to stop the spread of the ideas of communism in Europe. Containment was the policy created by the US to try and accomplish this. George Marshall Dean Acheson George Kennan
Truman wanted to give Greece and Turkey economic aid and military support to prevent communist revolutions.
George Marshall proposed a big economic aid program to rebuild Western European nations torn from the war
Based on North Atlantic Treaty of 1949 System of defense where its members agree to come together against an attacking party
Soviets blocked West Allies’ railways, roads, and canals – wanted to force Allies to supply Berlin with food, fuel, and aid Allies respond with Berlin airlift Embarrassment of Soviets
By the time Truman left office in 1953 the Cold War had taken global proportions. Two goals of the military system: U.S. armed forces should be unified into an integrated military system New institutions to coordinate military and diplomatic strategies Congress passed the National Security Act It established a Department of Defense with 3 separate service branches – Army, Navy, Air Force Established the CIA Provided for the National Security Council (NSC) – Security Secretaries, Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense
Air Force emerges as the dominate force in the Atomic Age Truman favored the AF with his military budget. B-29’s replaced with B-36’s. Military planners receive support when Soviets detonate an A-Bomb. Truman turns to the Hydrogen Bomb to maintain nuclear supremacy. H- Bomb is 1,000 times greater than the A-Bomb New National Defense Policy (NSC – 68) increases defense budget, spending $13-45 billion. Proves Truman wants to win the Cold War regardless of cost.
The conflict developed slowly in Asia At the Yalta Conference – U.S. and USSR agreed to a Far Eastern balance of power USSR dominated Northeast Asia U.S. controls the Pacific including Japan General McArthur was in charge of the Japanese occupation and denied Soviets any role in reconstruction. Supervised the Japanese government into a Constitutional Democracy. No communists. Tested Atomic Bombs at Bikini Island (1946-1949) China was between the Soviet and the U.S. spheres China was divided at the end of WW2 Nationalist – Chiang Kai Shek (South) Communist Mao Tse Tung (North) The Nationalists had American backing (political/economic) plus Soviet recognition When USSR left Manchuria, Mao gained control of the resources Chiang attempted to get Manchuria, but this exposed him to Mao’s forces. This ended a chance for peace which Marshall sought. (1947) – Chinese Civil War
Mao’s forces drove the Nationalists out of Manchuria and advanced across the Yangtze River Acheson – released the White Paper – justifying American Policy in China (no intervention) Military advisors told Congress that the Chinese defeat was due to the Nationalists terrible leadership Republican senators called the White Paper a “do nothing policy” Nationalists flee to Formosa (Taiwan) 1949 – Mao and Stalin sign the Sino Soviet Treaty – China is now in the Russian Orbit At first the State department refused to recognize China’s regime change To compensate for China – the U.S. focuses on Japan State Department encouraged Japanese Industry Pentagon expanded American bases on the Japanese islands Occupation ends in 1952 with Japan as an ally Cold War is now in Asia
Showdown between the U.S. and USSR 1945 – Korea was divided at the 38 th Parallel North Korea – Kim II Sung (Russian Occupied) South Korea – Syngman Rhee (U.S. Occupied) UN plea for elections fell on deaf ears Both superpowers left Korea in 1949, Russia did train the well equipped N. Koreans, the U.S. gave limited assistance to the South June 25, 1950 – N. Korea advances across the 38 th parallel It’s thought Stalin ordered the attack to expand the Soviet sphere, but Kim II Sung may have acted on his own Truman saw the invasion as Soviet aggression Communism in Asia was likened to Hitler and Mussolini Truman convened the National Security Council Condemned N. Korea as the aggressor Within a few weeks, American soldiers from Japan were in S. Korea Korea was a police action, and the U.S. was at war with a Soviet satellite
N. Korea found early success – but finally the U.S. forces halted the advance at Pusan. Gen. McArthur changed the war complexion with an amphibious assault on Inchon. The N. Korean forces in the South were cut off and destroyed. Truman’s New Goal – Korean Unification Ignored a warning from Peking, and received bad advice from Acheson and McArthur. The UN forces advanced on N. Korea, to the Yalu River and were completely destroyed by a Chinese counterattack. McArthur was able to stabilize the fighting at the 38 th parallel. Truman ended his reunifying McArthur said this was a mistake – “No substitute for victory.” Truman removed him from command, back in America – McArthur was greeted by huge crowds. General Omar Bradley warned Truman that a showdown in Asia would be the wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, against the wrong enemy The Korean War settled into a stalemate at the 38 th Parallel
By defending S. Korea, Truman had achieved his primary goal, but by not achieving unification he had humiliated the U.S. in the eyes of the world Result – U.S. massive rearmament NSC – 68 Expanded Army (3.5 million) Defense budget of 50 billion/year U.S. acquired military bases in Morocco and Saudi Arabia USSR and U.S. conflict placed the U.S. in a situation committed to a global war against the USSR
1940’s – 1950’s – American public concerned with overseas issues Republicans seized the opportunity Dissatisfaction with post war economics Fear of Communism 1952 – Republicans retake White House (1 st time in 20 years.) Truman Troubles – “To err is Truman…” Two weaknesses – Fondness for old friends, lack of political vision Postwar mood was not conducive for an extension of New Deal reforms Prices and wages rose quickly Two critical strikes: walkout by coal miners, and railroad strike Truman allowed increased wages, but this rose prices Employment Act 1946 – Council of Economic Advisors to aid the President for state of the economy
Vetoed the GOP measure to give tax cuts to the wealthy Congress overrode his veto of the Taft-Hartley Act – it outlawed specific unfair labor union activities (closed shop and secondary boycotts) Democrats try to get Truman to let Ike run, but he instead gives the “Give ‘em hell campaign.” Defeats Dixiecrats Strom Thurmond and Progressive Henry Wallace Defeats the GOP candidate Thomas E. Dewey
The Cold War brought the belief that subversion was a threat. Canadian officials uncovered a Soviet Spy Ring 1948 – Whittaker Chambers accused Alger Hiss of being a soviet spy and giving state department documents to him. Hiss convicted of treason. Loyalty Review Board dismissed workers as security risks if there was any reasonable doubt. Justice Department charged 11 members of the Communist Party with the threat of a coup. They received prison sentences. 1950 – Klaus Fuchs (British Scientist) admitted giving the Russians atomic Bomb information American Communists Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were charged with transmitting atomic secrets to the Soviets. They were executed for their crimes.
Senator Joe McCarthy stated he had a list of 205 members of the Communist Party working in the State Department His Wheeling Speech triggered a 4 ½ year crusade against Communism. He failed to unearth one communist in the government. He labeled Acheson (Red Dean) and went after Marshall Drew support from Catholics, Ethnic Groups – Irish, Polish, Italians, who normally voted Democratic – to defeat the enemy at home Republicans rise to power Red Scare Stalemate in Korea Ike and Nixon Korea – an honorable end through diplomacy Armistice was signed with the death of Stalin, Korea left divided McCarthy fades from history