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THE COLD WAR. Although the Soviet Union and the United States had been allies during World War II, their alliance came apart once the war was ended. Three.

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Presentation on theme: "THE COLD WAR. Although the Soviet Union and the United States had been allies during World War II, their alliance came apart once the war was ended. Three."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE COLD WAR

2 Although the Soviet Union and the United States had been allies during World War II, their alliance came apart once the war was ended. Three views on the cause of the Cold War:  All the fault of the Soviet Union…  All the fault of the United States…  All of the above

3 United States and Soviet Union had radically different visions of the post-war world. America believed that the nations of the world should participate in international trade and democracy. –free and open trade necessary to prevent another Depression –wanted to "share" concept of democratic self-determination with the rest of the world

4 . The Soviets were largely concerned about establishing greater security. –suffered military and civilian losses of 20 million + during the war –feared that Germany would regain its strength and launch another attack –to ward off another attack and defend its borders, USSR encouraged friendly regimes in Eastern Europe –this denied the United States free access to markets and the opportunity to export its vision of democracy

5 competition for control created tension –rebellions in Iran, Turkey and Greece –Dean Acheson – the “Rotten Apple Theory” of communist spread –Later, Americans would rename this same idea the “Domino Theory

6 The Truman Doctrine (1947) –President Truman asked Congress for $500 million in aid for Greece and Turkey to put down Communist uprisings “The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms." –Policy of “containment” to end the spread of communism –Later used as a justification for US involvement in Korea, Vietnam, & other nations –Critics of the Doctrine wondered: When is revolution the self-determination of a free people and when is it a Communist aggression orchestrated by the Kremlin?

7 The Marshall Plan, the Berlin Airlift and NATO George Marshall, US Secretary of State, proposed that providing economic aid to European countries would help create stability and would resist Communism –$13 billion in aid was spent by the US

8 BERLIN AIRLIFT Soviet Union cut off western links to Berlin, which was located inside the Soviet-occupied zone –response to growing American economic and military power in Europe Truman ordered a massive, year-long airlift of medical supplies, food and clothing for West Berliners –Eventually, the Soviets lifted the blockade

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10 Soviet Union sponsored Communist revolutions - Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Hungary ( )

11 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was created to defend Western Europe –An attack on any of member nation was equal to an attack on all 12 nations –US provided the primary military and monetary ($) support

12 Civil War in China Communist leader Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) pushed Nationalist leader Chiang Kai- Shek out of China to Formosa (aka Taiwan) –US recognized the ousted Nationalists’ Republic of China as official, while Chairman Mao’s Communist People’s Republic of China held power

13 The Cold War Domestic Policy –the Second Red Scare Congress organized the House Un-American Activities Committee (1938) investigations after WWII focused on left-wing Americans who were accused of being “Communist sympathizers” –Hollywood movie-makers were allegedly spreading communist messages –Actors, writers, and directors were “blacklisted” Alger Hiss, a New Dealer under Roosevelt, was accused of having spied for the USSR in the 30s {he was finally cleared of all charges in 1992

14 McCarthyism –Senator Joseph McCarthy used the anti-communist mood to further his name in politics –“Subversives” were accused of communist activity with no grounding in fact –Conformity: political and social – it was dangerous to be different –When Eisenhower took office in 1952, the climate changed and the tables turned against McCarthy “Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency


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