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What images come to mind when you think of the Cold War?

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Presentation on theme: "What images come to mind when you think of the Cold War?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What images come to mind when you think of the Cold War?

2 What are conditions like after WWII around the world? Much of Europe is left in ruins with little infrastructure. Japan is devastated from use of the A- bomb. Two countries with opposite political philosophies emerge as world powers. Early optimism for cooperation quickly fades into distrust and fear. Both countries will spare no expense in efforts to spread influence across the world.

3 The Cold War Begins APUSH Essential Question: How did the increase in Communism after WWII lead to global issues during the Cold War?

4 A New President V.P. Harry Truman is thrust into the spotlight when FDR dies in Why were Americans skeptical of Truman’s ability to lead the nation? Truman had only met with Roosevelt twice in his 82 days as V.P. Truman would prove he was up to the task in his first few months as President. Truman had on the job training in dealing with leaders like Stalin and Churchill.

5 Potsdam and Beyond p. 845 Truman’s first meeting with Stalin was at the final wartime conference at Potsdam, Germany. U.S. and Britain want free elections in Poland and other E. European Countries. Allied demands of Japan?

6 Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal p. 863 Final meeting of the “Big Three” Purpose? Final plans made for defeat of Germans & what would occur to German occupied territory & E. Europe after WWII Poland? Bulgaria & Romania? Far East/China? Plans laid for a new international peace Keeping organization

7 What’s The Problem? What makes the economic and political systems of the United States and the Soviet Union incompatible? Also, lingering resentment over past events. Stalin’s relationship with Hitler, Allied refusal to invade Europe in 1944, development of the atomic bomb. Stalin’s relationship with Hitler, Allied refusal to invade Europe in 1944, development of the atomic bomb. Despite issues, both nations join the U.N. in Despite issues, both nations join the U.N. in Yalta was not about drafting formal a peace agreement, rather Big 3 are just feeling things out Spirit p. 407

8 Goals in Europe - Post WWII United States vs. Soviet Union Encourage democracy Rebuild European gov’ts and create new markets for U.S. goods Reunite Germany in effort to make Europe more productive Encourage communism as part of worldwide class struggle Control E. Europe to balance rising U.S. influence Keep Germany divided and weak Satellite nations?

9 Welches, mit Deutschland zu machen? Germany divided into four zones. Soviets want Germany weak and divided. U.S., France, and Britain believe Europe will be more stable if Germany is reunited Western Zones are combined into one nation. E. Germany becomes a Soviet Satellite. Nuremburg Trials? P. 867

10 Berlin Airlift American and British officials fly food and supplies to W. Berlin to break the blockade. Nearly 30,000 flights over the course of 327 days brought 2.3 million tons of supplies to W. Berlin. Flights took off and landed every few minutes and went around the clock. Berlin Airlift humiliated the Soviets and they eventually lifted the blockade. Soviets blockade West Berlin

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12 Containment Doctrine Tired of “babying the Soviets” U.S. diplomat George Kennan proposes policy of Containment. U.S. efforts to block the spread and influence of Soviet communism during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Must stop the domino effect of communism. Containment will guide Truman’s foreign policy.

13 U.S. Containment Efforts p. 869 Truman Doctrine – 1947 U.S. will support free peoples resisting takeovers by “armed minorities or outside pressures.” a.k.a. communists U.S. will support free peoples resisting takeovers by “armed minorities or outside pressures.” a.k.a. communists The U.S. will provide economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external components (communism). Begins with aid to Turkey and Greece. Spirit p. 412 Marshall Plan W. Europe is devastated W. Europe is devastated No work, no infrastructure, No work, no infrastructure, millions are homeless. millions are homeless. The primary purpose of the Marshall Plan was to aid the economic recovery of war-torn Europe Spirit p. 418 What’s the catch? Congress debates for months, what happens to ensure the Marshall Plan’s passage? Results in Middle East? George Marshall

14 What are the U.S. Containment efforts trying to prevent? What are people afraid of spreading across the European continent?

15 Essential Question:  How did the increase in Communism after World War II lead to domestic issues during the Cold War? After WWII what / who do Americans fear most of all? Post WWII Americans fear that communism is taking over the world.Post WWII Americans fear that communism is taking over the world. Americans also fear nuclear war with the Soviet UnionAmericans also fear nuclear war with the Soviet Union

16 Loyalty Review Board  Set up by Truman to do what?  Investigate and gov’t employees found to be “disloyal”.  What is disloyal activity?  1947 – 1951 the gov’t investigated 3.2 million employees, 212 were fired.  Nearly 3k resign because they feel constitutional rights have been violated.

17 The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)  Developed by congress to search out disloyalty before WWII.  HUAC first made headlines when began to investigate Communist influence in the movie industry in Walt Disney, Ronald Reagan, Ayn Rand among those questioned.

18 Hollywood vs. Washington D.C. “ Reds” in our midst

19 The Hollywood Ten  HUAC subpoenas 43 witnesses from Hollywood.  Many are “friendly” and cooperate with HUAC.  10 are “unfriendly” refuse to name names  Thought hearings were unconstitutional.  Results in being Blacklisted.

20 Alger Hiss  Investigated by the HUAC, Hiss was the first American to be indicted for spying post WWII.  Convicted of perjury in  Would set the stage for the future events.  Spread of communist fear second red scare. Who led the charge against Alger Hiss?

21 Spy Paranoia UUUUSSR detonates A-bomb in 1949, three years ahead of schedule. HHHHow did Soviets make up so much ground so quickly? SSSSomebody gave the Soviets inside info about America’s atomic bomb development.

22 Ethel & Julius Rosenberg  Executed for espionage in  Convicted of giving American atomic secrets to the Soviets.  Rosenberg's were members of the American Communist Party

23  Rosenberg's deny charges and plead the 5 th Amendment.  At sentencing judge declares their crime “worse than murder” and sentences both Julius and Ethel to death.  Many appeals flood in, but convection is not overturned.

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25 Election of 1948 ►W►W►W►Why did many feel Truman would not win re-election? ►P►P►P►Possible Korean War stalemate & 2nd Red Scare made Truman seem weak on Communism ►T►T►T►Truman overcomes a split in his own party and defeats his over confident opponent

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27 The Cold War Spreads – Asia During WWII Japan occupies China. During WWII Japan occupies China. Two opposing groups stop a long civil war and fight together against the Japanese occupation. Two opposing groups stop a long civil war and fight together against the Japanese occupation. Mao Zedong: Communists Mao Zedong: Communists Chiang Kai-Shek: Nationalists Chiang Kai-Shek: Nationalists What happens after WWII? What happens after WWII? Essential Question: Why did events in Asia and Europe dominate U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War period?

28 Chinese Civil War What country supports the Nationalists? What country supports the Nationalists? United States What country supports the Communists? What country supports the Communists? Soviet Union Chiang Kai-Shek Mao Zedong

29 Chinese Civil War U.S. plays peacemaker from (still supports the Nationalists). U.S. plays peacemaker from (still supports the Nationalists). Truman would not commit U.S. soldiers to fight communism in China. Truman would not commit U.S. soldiers to fight communism in China Communists defeat Nationalists Communists defeat Nationalists. Where do Chiang Kai-Shek and Nationalists flee to? Where do Chiang Kai-Shek and Nationalists flee to?

30 American Reaction to Communist Take Over of China? Communism is spreading! Communism is spreading! Containment policy had failed. Containment policy had failed. Shouldn’t the U.S. contain Communism in Asia just as it had in Europe? Shouldn’t the U.S. contain Communism in Asia just as it had in Europe? How does this make Truman look in dealing with Communism? How does this make Truman look in dealing with Communism?

31 Japan controls Korea from 1910 – As WWII ends who do Japanese troops in the North of Korea surrender to? The Soviet Union What about in the South of Korea? The United States After these occupying troops leave who claims the right to rule all of Korea? Both North & South Claim the right to rule Korea Korea 38 th Parallel?

32 38 th Parallel After WWII U.S. & U.S.S.R. withdraw troops from Korea. After WWII U.S. & U.S.S.R. withdraw troops from Korea. Line that divides Korea at 38 degrees north latitude. Line that divides Korea at 38 degrees north latitude. Not intended as a permanent boundary. Not intended as a permanent boundary.

33 North vs. South North Korea attacks South Korea in North Korea attacks South Korea in What is the reaction in America? What is the reaction in America? Americans are afraid that Communism is spreading around the world Will the United States sit back and let another country fall to Communism? Spirit p. 425 Will the United States sit back and let another country fall to Communism? Spirit p. 425

34 The Korean War U.N. Security council passes American resolution to help S. Korea. U.N. Security council passes American resolution to help S. Korea. Role of the Soviet Union? Role of the Soviet Union? 520,000 U.N. troops join the fight – 90% are American. 520,000 U.N. troops join the fight – 90% are American. Who is at the command of these forces? Who is at the command of these forces? General Douglas MacArthur

35 The Korean War Which side has the initial advantage? Which side has the initial advantage? N. Korea to quickly takes the city of Seoul. N. Korea to quickly takes the city of Seoul. MacArthur launches a counterattack with tanks and fresh troops from the U.S. MacArthur launches a counterattack with tanks and fresh troops from the U.S.

36 U.S. troops land behind enemy lines at Inchon. Troops meet in the middle and surround North Koreans. U.S. troops land behind enemy lines at Inchon. Troops meet in the middle and surround North Koreans. Macarthur becomes a hero to the American public. Goal is met, what next? Macarthur becomes a hero to the American public. Goal is met, what next? P. 878 Shift from defense to offense?

37 October 1950: U.N. wants Macarthur to cross 38 th parallel and reunite Korea. October 1950: U.N. wants Macarthur to cross 38 th parallel and reunite Korea. China threatens action if Americans come to the border of Korea and China. China threatens action if Americans come to the border of Korea and China. Macarthur dismisses the threat, advances troops into N. Korea close to Chinese border believes the conflict will end quickly Macarthur dismisses the threat, advances troops into N. Korea close to Chinese border believes the conflict will end quickly

38 The China Syndrome In late November 300,000 Chinese troops pour across the border into N. Korea. In late November 300,000 Chinese troops pour across the border into N. Korea. U.N. forces must retreat back below 38 th parallel. U.N. forces must retreat back below 38 th parallel. For the next two years both sides fight to obtain strategic positions throughout Korea. For the next two years both sides fight to obtain strategic positions throughout Korea. War turns into a bloody stalemate. Spirit p. 434 War turns into a bloody stalemate. Spirit p. 434

39 MacArthur vs. Truman MacArthur wants full scale war vs. China. MacArthur wants full scale war vs. China. Use of nukes? Use of nukes? Truman disagrees. Truman disagrees. MacArthur goes over the President to try and accomplish goals. MacArthur goes over the President to try and accomplish goals. MacArthur talks to press and Republican leadership. MacArthur talks to press and Republican leadership. Truman will not tolerate this behavior. Spirit p. 433 Truman will not tolerate this behavior. Spirit p. 433 What happens? What happens? How does the public respond? How does the public respond? Gen. MacArthur President Truman

40 Effects of Stalemate Korean War ends in a stalemate Lasting effects of the Korean War: North Koreans pushed back. Communism contained without a world war or the use of nukes. Increased fear of Communist aggression across the world, especially within the U.S. Korea is still divided. 54,000 American lives lost, war costs $22 billion.

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