2Two Superpowers Emerge During WWII, both U.S. and Soviet Union fought against GermanyHowever, before war began, alliance between the two was beginning to unravelU.S. upset at Stalin for first accepting Non-aggression pact and for complaining about the delayed invasion to help the USSR
3Yalta ConferenceFebruary 1945, leaders of three allied nations meet in Yalta, a Soviet resort city on the Black SeaU.S., Britain, and USSR
4Yalta Deals Stalin is lying! Big Deal! Divide Germany into zones after the warGermany pay back USSR for lossesUSSR allow free elections in PolandUSSR stay out of the business of Eastern Europe after the warStalin is lying!Big Deal!
5Division of Germany Soviets controlled east Allies (France, Britain and U.S.) control west
6Goals of Yalta Stalin's a liar! To promote world peace To provide emergency reliefTo help form interim governments based on the will of the peopleProblems:Stalin wanted a strong Communist state, surrounded by communists states to protect from WestRoosevelt wanted world democracy led by U.S.The real problem…Stalin's a liar!
7Creation of United Nations June 1945 – creation of United Nations50 countries join, including U.S. and USSRInternational Organization to protect the members against aggression and keep peaceBased in New York
8The UN Charter called for a large body called the General Assembly Similar to international town meetingEach country who was a member could cast a vote, including membership of other countriesSecurity Council11-member body with real power to investigate and settle disputes5 permanent members: Britain, China, France, U.S. and USSREach member could veto any action
9U.S. and USSR Split WWII outcomes very different U.S. lost 400,000 soldiers, but cities and factories remained intactUSSR 1 in 4 wounded or killed, many cities demolishedEconomic and political differences affected their post-war goals
10Soviets Build Protection After WWII, USSR’s major goal was to have protection from the westAt end of war, Soviet troops occupied a strip of countries on its western bordersViewed as a buffer, or wall of protectionStalin ignores promises from Yalta, establishes Communist governmentsStalin lied?I'm shocked!
11Truman’s Response Truman was much tougher with Stalin than FDR Saw Stalin’s reluctance to allow free elections as a clear violation of their rights’Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Potsdam, Germany in July 1945Truman asks Stalin for free elections, he refusesStalin makes speech in 1946: communism and capitalism cannot exist in the same world
12Iron CurtainWith Soviet control, East Germany became German Democratic RepublicUnder Communist governmentWestern zones became Federal Republic of GermanyChurchill used the phrase “iron curtain” to represent the division between democratic west Europe and Communist eastStalin termed Churchill’s words a “call to war”
13U.S. Responds Relations with USSR continue to worsen Truman: “stop babying the Soviets”Adopted a policy of containmentPolicy directed at blocking Soviet influence and preventing expansion of CommunismCreate alliances and helping weak countries resist the Soviet forces
14The Truman DoctrineTruman’s support for countries that rejected Communism was known as the Truman DoctrineWent to Congress to ask for aid for Turkey and GreeceCaused controversy – some objected to America’s interference in other nations’ affairsAlso worried that U.S. did not have resources to lead global crusade on CommunismCongress approved $400 million in aid
15The Marshall PlanJune 1947, U.S. Sec. of State George Marshall proposed that America give aid to any European country that needed itProvide food, machines and other materialsKnown as The Marshall PlanAs Congress debated $12.5 billion program in Feb. 1948, Communists took power in CzechoslovakiaCongress immediately approved planGreat success in Western Europe and Yugoslavia
16Allies Withdraw from W. Germany In 1948, France, Britain and U.S. decided to divide West Germany in three occupation zonesUSSR upset, wanted to keep Germany weak and dividedSoviets protest by holding West Berlin hostage
17BerlinBerlin well within Soviet occupation of Germany, however, was divided into 4 zonesSoviet Union cut off highway, water and rail traffic into Berlin’s western zonesCity faced starvationStalin hoped plan would force Western countries to surrender West Berlin or give up idea of reunification
18The Berlin AirliftStalin was wrong – American and British officials flew food and supplies into West BerlinFor nearly 11 months, planes took off and landed every 3 minutes277,000 flights brought in 2.3 million tons of food, fuel, medicine, and even Christmas presentsStalin called off blockade in May 1949
19Beginnings of the Cold War These events were the beginnings of the Cold WarBeginning in 1949, both the U.S. and USSR use spying, propaganda, diplomacy and secret operations to deal with each otherMuch of the world allied with one side or the other
20Creation of NATOHeightened fears of aggression led ten Western European nations joined the U.S. and Canada to create NATONorth Atlantic Treaty OrganizationDefensive military alliancePromised to meet an attack on any NATO country with forceSoviets viewed NATO as threat, created alliance system known as Warsaw Pact
21Nuclear ThreatU.S. already had atomic bomb, Soviets exploded their own as early as 1949Both now nuclear powersTruman wanted to be one step ahead of USSR and develop an even more deadly weaponAuthorized work on a thermonuclear weapon in January 1950Hydrogen or H-bomb would be thousands of times more powerful than the A-bombU.S. successfully tested on November 1952USSR successfully tested August 1953
22Brinkmanship Eisenhower becomes president in 1953 Appointed John Foster Dulles as the secretary of stateDulles threatened that if the Soviets or supporters attacked U.S. interests, the U.S. would “retaliate instantly, by means and at places of our own choosing”Willingness to go to the brink, or edge, of war known as brinkmanship
23Arms RaceIn order to respond instantly, U.S. had to have arsenal of weapons availableStrengthen air force and began stockpiling nuclear weaponsSoviet Union also began storing nuclear bombsArms race went on for 4 decades