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The Beginning of the Cold War

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1 The Beginning of the Cold War

2 Two Superpowers Emerge
During WWII, both U.S. and Soviet Union fought against Germany However, before war began, alliance between the two was beginning to unravel U.S. upset at Stalin for first accepting Non-aggression pact and for complaining about the delayed invasion to help the USSR

3 Yalta Conference February 1945, leaders of three allied nations meet in Yalta, a Soviet resort city on the Black Sea U.S., Britain, and USSR

4 Yalta Deals Stalin is lying! Big Deal!
Divide Germany into zones after the war Germany pay back USSR for losses USSR allow free elections in Poland USSR stay out of the business of Eastern Europe after the war Stalin is lying! Big Deal!

5 Division of Germany Soviets controlled east
Allies (France, Britain and U.S.) control west

6 Goals of Yalta Stalin's a liar! To promote world peace
To provide emergency relief To help form interim governments based on the will of the people Problems: Stalin wanted a strong Communist state, surrounded by communists states to protect from West Roosevelt wanted world democracy led by U.S. The real problem… Stalin's a liar!

7 Creation of United Nations
June 1945 – creation of United Nations 50 countries join, including U.S. and USSR International Organization to protect the members against aggression and keep peace Based in New York

8 The UN Charter called for a large body called the General Assembly
Similar to international town meeting Each country who was a member could cast a vote, including membership of other countries Security Council 11-member body with real power to investigate and settle disputes 5 permanent members: Britain, China, France, U.S. and USSR Each member could veto any action

9 U.S. and USSR Split WWII outcomes very different
U.S. lost 400,000 soldiers, but cities and factories remained intact USSR 1 in 4 wounded or killed, many cities demolished Economic and political differences affected their post-war goals

10 Soviets Build Protection
After WWII, USSR’s major goal was to have protection from the west At end of war, Soviet troops occupied a strip of countries on its western borders Viewed as a buffer, or wall of protection Stalin ignores promises from Yalta, establishes Communist governments Stalin lied? I'm shocked!

11 Truman’s Response Truman was much tougher with Stalin than FDR
Saw Stalin’s reluctance to allow free elections as a clear violation of their rights’ Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Potsdam, Germany in July 1945 Truman asks Stalin for free elections, he refuses Stalin makes speech in 1946: communism and capitalism cannot exist in the same world

12 Iron Curtain With Soviet control, East Germany became German Democratic Republic Under Communist government Western zones became Federal Republic of Germany Churchill used the phrase “iron curtain” to represent the division between democratic west Europe and Communist east Stalin termed Churchill’s words a “call to war”

13 U.S. Responds Relations with USSR continue to worsen
Truman: “stop babying the Soviets” Adopted a policy of containment Policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and preventing expansion of Communism Create alliances and helping weak countries resist the Soviet forces

14 The Truman Doctrine Truman’s support for countries that rejected Communism was known as the Truman Doctrine Went to Congress to ask for aid for Turkey and Greece Caused controversy – some objected to America’s interference in other nations’ affairs Also worried that U.S. did not have resources to lead global crusade on Communism Congress approved $400 million in aid

15 The Marshall Plan June 1947, U.S. Sec. of State George Marshall proposed that America give aid to any European country that needed it Provide food, machines and other materials Known as The Marshall Plan As Congress debated $12.5 billion program in Feb. 1948, Communists took power in Czechoslovakia Congress immediately approved plan Great success in Western Europe and Yugoslavia

16 Allies Withdraw from W. Germany
In 1948, France, Britain and U.S. decided to divide West Germany in three occupation zones USSR upset, wanted to keep Germany weak and divided Soviets protest by holding West Berlin hostage

17 Berlin Berlin well within Soviet occupation of Germany, however, was divided into 4 zones Soviet Union cut off highway, water and rail traffic into Berlin’s western zones City faced starvation Stalin hoped plan would force Western countries to surrender West Berlin or give up idea of reunification

18 The Berlin Airlift Stalin was wrong – American and British officials flew food and supplies into West Berlin For nearly 11 months, planes took off and landed every 3 minutes 277,000 flights brought in 2.3 million tons of food, fuel, medicine, and even Christmas presents Stalin called off blockade in May 1949

19 Beginnings of the Cold War
These events were the beginnings of the Cold War Beginning in 1949, both the U.S. and USSR use spying, propaganda, diplomacy and secret operations to deal with each other Much of the world allied with one side or the other

20 Creation of NATO Heightened fears of aggression led ten Western European nations joined the U.S. and Canada to create NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Defensive military alliance Promised to meet an attack on any NATO country with force Soviets viewed NATO as threat, created alliance system known as Warsaw Pact

21 Nuclear Threat U.S. already had atomic bomb, Soviets exploded their own as early as 1949 Both now nuclear powers Truman wanted to be one step ahead of USSR and develop an even more deadly weapon Authorized work on a thermonuclear weapon in January 1950 Hydrogen or H-bomb would be thousands of times more powerful than the A-bomb U.S. successfully tested on November 1952 USSR successfully tested August 1953

22 Brinkmanship Eisenhower becomes president in 1953
Appointed John Foster Dulles as the secretary of state Dulles threatened that if the Soviets or supporters attacked U.S. interests, the U.S. would “retaliate instantly, by means and at places of our own choosing” Willingness to go to the brink, or edge, of war known as brinkmanship

23 Arms Race In order to respond instantly, U.S. had to have arsenal of weapons available Strengthen air force and began stockpiling nuclear weapons Soviet Union also began storing nuclear bombs Arms race went on for 4 decades

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