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THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America: Past and Present Chapter 28.

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Presentation on theme: "THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America: Past and Present Chapter 28."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America: Past and Present Chapter 28

2 The Cold War Begins: Issues Dividing U.S., U.S.S.R. Control of postwar Europe Economic aid Nuclear disarmament

3 The Division of Europe 1945--Russians occupy eastern Europe, American troops occupy western Europe Soviet Union seeks eastern European buffer U.S. demands national self- determination through free elections throughout Europe Stalin converts eastern Europe into a system of satellite nations

4 Europe after World War II

5 Withholding Economic Aid Russia devastated by World War II Some Americans seek to influence Russia with Lend-Lease economic aid 1945--United States halts Lend-Lease without Russian settlement Leverage lost in shaping Soviet policy

6 The Atomic Dilemma 1943--nuclear race between U.S., U.S.S.R. 1946--Baruch Plan – rapid reduction of U.S. military force – gradual reduction favors U.S. atomic monopoly Soviet Union – larger conventional army than U.S. – immediate abolition of atomic weapons

7 Containment 1947--George C. Marshall appointed Secretary of State Dean Acheson seeks for U.S. England's former role as arbiter of world affairs George Kennan calls for “containment of Russia’s expansive tendencies”

8 The Truman Doctrine 1947--Truman seeks funds to keep Greece, Turkey in western sphere of influence Truman Doctrine: “support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure” Doctrine an informal declaration of cold war against the Soviet Union

9 The Marshall Plan 1947--George Marshall proposes aid for rebuilding European industries Russia refuses aid 1948--Marshall Plan adopted by Congress Plan fosters western European prosperity

10 Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948-1952

11 The Western Military Alliance 1949--North Atlantic Treaty Organization – military alliance includes U.S., Canada, most of western Europe – U.S. troops stationed in Europe NATO intensifies Russia's fear of the West

12 The Berlin Blockade June, 1948--Russians blockade Berlin Truman orders airlift to supply the city 1949--Russians end blockade U.S. political victory dramatizes division

13 The Cold War Expands 1947--U.S.-Russian arms race accelerates Conflict expands to Asia

14 The Military Dimension 1947--National Security Act – Department of Defense unifies armed forces – Central Intelligence Agency coordinates intelligence-gathering – National Security Council advises president Defense budget devoted to air power 1949--first Russian atomic bomb explodes, U.S. begins hydrogen bomb development

15 The Cold War in Asia 1945--U.S. consolidates hold on Japan, former Japanese possessions in Pacific 1949--victory of Mao Tse-tung brings China into Soviet orbit Truman refuses recognition of Communist China, begins building up Japan

16 The Korean War June25, 1950--Communist North Korean forces invade U.S.-influenced South Korea Truman makes South Korea’s defense a U.N. effort, sends in U.S. troops – U.S. routs Korean forces in South – Attempt to unify Korea draws in China – U.S. pushed back to South, war a stalemate Result--massive American rearmament

17 The Korean War, 1950-1953

18 The Cold War at Home New Deal economic policies undermined Fears of Communist subversion Republicans use anticommunism to revive their party

19 Truman's Troubles Obstacles to Truman’s Fair Deal reforms – apathetic public – inflation – labor unrest 1946--Republicans win Congress

20 Truman Vindicated 1948--Thomas Dewey versus Truman – Truman thought unelectable – Southern Democrats, Northern liberals desert – Roosevelt coalition reelects Truman on domestic issues Republicans respond by challenging Truman’s handling of the Cold War


22 The Loyalty Issue Fear of Communist subversion Truman administration conducts campaign against “subversives” Democrats blamed for – "losing" China to Communism – Russia's development of a hydrogen bomb

23 McCarthyism in Action 1950--Senator Joseph McCarthy launches anticommunist campaign Innocent overwhelmed by accusations Attacks on privileged bureaucrats – supported by Midwest Republicans – attract Irish, Italian, Polish workers to Republicans

24 The Republicans in Power 1952--Eisenhower captures White House for Republican Party July 27, 1953--stalemate accepted in Korea Eisenhower deals passively with McCarthy 1954--attack on Army discredits McCarthy who is then censured


26 Eisenhower Wages the Cold War Eisenhower relaxes tensions with Russia Eisenhower’s fears – debt imposed by defense spending – possibility of atomic warfare

27 Entanglement in Indochina Eisenhower refuses military aid for French retention of colonial Indochina Victory of Communist Ho Chi Minh prompts intervention to prevent election Vietnam divided South Vietnam under U.S. puppet regime

28 Containing China Tough line against China Drive wedge between China, Russia Strategy ultimately works Effects not immediately apparent

29 Turmoil in the Middle East 1956--Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal France, England invade Egypt Eisenhower wins Middle East trust by pressuring English, French withdrawal 1958--Lebanon invites U.S. troops to maintain order

30 Covert Actions Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) used to achieve covert objectives Iran--CIA restores the shah to power Guatemala--CIA ousts leftist government Eastern Europe--refused to help East Germans or Hungarians

31 Waging Peace October, 1957--Russians launch Sputnik October--U.S., U.S.S.R. agree to suspend nuclear testing in the atmosphere November--Berlin blockade threatened May, 1960--U-2 incident

32 The Continuing Cold War January, 1961--Eisenhower warns against growing military-industrial complex Post-war era marked by Cold War rather than peace and tranquility

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