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THE COLD WAR The Undeclared War.

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1 THE COLD WAR The Undeclared War

2 Potsdam Conference Potsdam Conference marked the end of the wartime alliance between the Soviet Union and the US. Truman approach to foreign policy was similar to Wilson’s, as he placed his faith in international cooperation. The victorious Allied powers decided to take reparations from their occupation zones in Germany at the Potsdam Conference In the decade after the Potsdam conference ( ), the two countries fought for power over Europe Conflict continued over the spread of communism to Asia

3 The Cold War Begins The United States and Soviet Union attempted to solve the issues of the division of Europe, postwar economic aid, and the atomic bomb through negotiation. From this point forward, Americans and Soviets alike had to deal with mutual suspicion and fears of each other.

4 The Division of Europe Key issue of the Cold War – who would control post-war Europe 1945: Russians occupied Eastern Europe, American and allied troops occupied Western Europe The Soviet Union sought to use Eastern European countries as a buffer U.S. demanded national self-determination through free elections throughout Europe Stalin separated Eastern Europe from Western Europe along a fortified border nicknames the “iron curtain” U.S. and Great Britain refused to permit the Soviets to take reparations from the industrial western zone of Germany

5 Europe after World War II

6 Withholding Economic Aid
The Soviet Union experienced great losses in population, infrastructure and agriculture and needed financial assistance for reconstruction. United States leaders and ambassadors wanted to use this need against the Soviet Union through loans. However, President Roosevelt took no action on the Soviets’ request for a $6 billion loan and in doing so lost the opportunity for power over Soviet policy 1945: Congress advised against the use of Lend-Lease (providing miscellaneous infrastructural equipment in return for the promise of later payment) for postwar reconstruction. May 11, 1945: President Truman signed an order terminating all shipments to Russia, however, due to Soviet discontent, Lend-Lease shipping resumed until the end of the war. The United States’ reluctance to provide assistance to the struggling Soviet Union led to Stalin’s conviction in Western hostility. Muricah

7 The Atomic Dilemma The United States kept atomic bomb development a secret from the Soviet Union, a major ally. After learning of the “Manhattan Project” Stalin started a similar program in 1943 aided by information obtained from spies planted in the United States. After the war, the US proposed the BARUCH PLAN to the United Nations. This disarmament plan would outlaw atomic bombs globally in several gradual stages. The United States planned to give an international agency control of atomic materials, plants and eventually bombs. The Soviets, however, called for immediate disarmament and destruction of all atomic bombs so that the US would no longer be at an advantage since the Baruch Plan would have preserved American monopoly on nuclear weapons. Negotiations were unsuccessful due to conflicting national interests. Each nation sought every advantage of the other (Russia- land gained from war; US- economic and strategic advantages) This rivalry signals the start of the Cold War.

8 Containment 1947: George C. Marshall appointed Secretary of State
George Marshall relied on the talents of Dean Acheson and George Kennan Dean Acheson: England’s former role as arbiter of world affairs George Kennan: Called for vigilance regarding Soviet expansionist tendencies, and for American foreign policy to be left to experts

9 Foreign Policy Secretary of State George Marshall - gave economic assistance to Western Europe Dean Acheson - Opposed appeasement and had a policy of negotiating only from strength George Kennan - Advocated for containment John Foster Dulles - Suez Canal crisis Bernard Baruch - Nuclear disarmament

10 The Truman Doctrine Images and publications like this led to the Truman Doctrine Created in response to Britain who lacked funding to continue to support Greece and Turkey from a Soviet invasion

11 The Truman Doctrine 1947: Truman sought funds to keep Greece and Turkey in Western sphere of influence Truman Doctrine: “Support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure” Truman Doctrine an informal declaration of cold war against the Soviet Union

12 The Marshall Plan 1947: George Marshall proposed the infusion of massive amounts of American capital in Western Europe Russia refused aid 1948: Marshall Plan adopted by Congress Plan fostered western European prosperity industrial success in Europe bolstered the American economy and put an end to American fears of the spread of Communism to the West

13 Marshall Plan to Aid Europe
The Marshall Plan generated broad industrial recovery in Western Europe

14 The Western Military Alliance
1947: George Marshall proposed the infusion of massive amounts of American capital in Western Europe Military alliance included U.S., Canada, most of western Europe U.S. troops stationed in Europe represented a departure from traditional American isolationism NATO intensified the Soviet’s fear of the West

15 The Berlin Blockade June, 1948: Soviets respond by starting a blockade of Berlin Truman ordered airlift to supply the city 1949: Russians end blockade U.S. political victory dramatized division

16 The Military Dimension
1947: National Security Act Department of Defense unified armed forces Central Intelligence Agency coordinated intelligence-gathering National Security Council advised president Defense budget devoted to air power 1949: First Russian atomic bomb exploded, U.S. began hydrogen bomb development Statement NSC-68 advocated a massive expansion of American military so the U.S. could halt and overcome the Soviet threat. Proved that President Truman would do anything necessary to win the Cold War

17 The Cold War in Asia 1945: U.S. consolidates hold on Japan, former Japanese possessions in Pacific. American policy changed Japanese government to a constitutional government. Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists vs Mao Tse-tung’s Communist in the Chinese Civil War Chiang Kai-shek’s biggest problem was by 1945 was inflation, which had risen 100% in one year 1949: Victory of Mao Tse-tung brings China into Soviet orbit, U.S. decides to focus on Japan as an ally Republican senators blamed the Communist sucess in China on American diplomats who sabotaged the Nationalist government

18 The Korean War Result: Massive American rearmament
June 25, 1950: Communist North Korean (supported by Soviet Union) forces invaded U.S.-influenced South Korea General Douglas MacArthur was overconfident and gave Truman bad advice The American public continued to support MacArthur and the battle against communism in Asia and were displeased with his relief of command on April 11, 1951 Truman made South Korea’s defense a U.N. effort, sent in U.S. troops U.S. routed Korean forces in South China threatened an invasion if the U.S. invaded North Korea Attempt to unify Korea drew in China U.S. pushed back to South, war a stalemate Result: Massive American rearmament

19 The Korean War,

20 The Cold War at Home New Deal economic policies undermined
Fears of Communist subversion Republicans used the public dissatisfaction of the Cold War to revive and strengthen their party

21 Truman’s Troubles Obstacles to Truman’s Fair Deal reforms:
Apathetic public Inflation - Prices went up 25% in two years Nicknamed the “No. 1 Strikebreaker” Labor Unrest 1946: Republicans win Congress

22 Truman Vindicated Taft-Hartley Act outlawed certain union tactics
Truman vetoed, Republicans overrode his veto 1948 election: Truman thought unelectable Northern liberals supported Henry Wallace’s Progressive candidacy Southern Democrats supported “Dixiecrat” Strom Thurmond Republican Thomas Dewey overconfident and ran bland campaign, failed to challenge Truman on Cold War because of the Berlin Crisis; key to Truman’s win Roosevelt coalition elected Truman on domestic issues


24 The Loyalty Issue House Un-American Activities Committee investigated Communist subversion in government Truman responded with loyalty program Alger Hiss case - most famous disclosure of espionage in the late 1940’s Democrats blamed for: “Losing” China to Communism Russia’s development of a hydrogen bomb

25 McCarthyism in Action 1950: Senator Joseph McCarthy launched anti communist campaign based on unsubstantiated claims used to engender fear, thereby increasing his popularity Innocent overwhelmed by accusations Julius and Ethel Rosenburg were executed for sharing secrets of the atomic bomb to the Soviets Attacks on privileged bureaucrats Supported by Midwest Republicans Attracted Irish, Italian, Polish workers to Republicans

26 The Republicans in Power
1952: Eisenhower captures White House for Republican Party July 27, 1953: stalemate accepted in Korea Eisenhower deals passively with McCarthy 1954: Attack on an Army dentist discredits McCarthy, who is then censured

27 The Election of 1952

28 Eisenhower Wages the Cold War
Eisenhower prefers to work behind the scenes Eisenhower’s Secretary of State: John Foster Dulles Eisenhower wanted to relax tensions with Soviets Debt imposed by defense spending Military relied on air force and its nuclear striking power Eisenhower’s “new look” policy relied on massive retaliation to deter Soviet attacks

29 Entanglement in Indochina
Despite Admiral Redford’s call for air strikes in the battle of Dien Bien Phu, Eisenhower refused military aid for French retention of colonial Indochina. Admiral Arthur Redford called for U.S. military assistance to prevent French defeat in Vietnam Victory of Communist Ho Chi Minh prompted intervention to prevent election Vietnam divided, election postponed South Vietnam under U.S. puppet regime

30 Containing China Tough line against China when they shelled the Nationalists coastal islands; U.S. hints at potential nuclear strike Drove wedge between China and and Russia: Soviets didn't want to intervene Strategy ultimately worked Effects not immediately apparent The first test of Eisenhower’s policy to contain China came at the Formosa Strait in Taiwan

31 Turmoil in the Middle East
1956: Nasser nationalized Suez Canal Eisenhower’s first serious foreign policy came when Egypt seized the Suez Canal France, England invaded Egypt Eisenhower won Middle East trust by pressuring English, French withdrawal 1958: Lebanon invited U.S. troops to maintain order

32 Eisenhower: Recap Brought end to the Korean War
Accepted Soviet domination of Eastern Europe to keep peace Authorized spy planes to fly over the Soviet Union Remained calm in times of stress due to his prestigious military background

33 Covert Actions Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) used to achieve covert objectives Iran: CIA restored the shah to power Guatemala: CIA ousted leftist government Eastern Europe: Refused to help East Germans or Hungarians

34 Waging Peace Stalin was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev
Nuclear test ban treaty U.S. and U.S.S.R. agreed to suspend nuclear testing in the atmosphere October, 1957: Russians launched Sputnik Khrushchev worsened the state of the Cold War after the launch of Sputnik by claiming “We will bury you… Your grandchildren will live under communism” May, 1960: U-2 incident cancelled plans for summit on new Berlin Crisis

35 The Continuing Cold War
January, 1961: Eisenhower warned against growing military-industrial complex Post-war era marked by Cold War rather than peace and tranquility

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