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THE COLD WAR 28. The Cold War Begins: Issues Dividing U.S., U.S.S.R. Control of postwar Europe Economic aid Nuclear disarmament.

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Presentation on theme: "THE COLD WAR 28. The Cold War Begins: Issues Dividing U.S., U.S.S.R. Control of postwar Europe Economic aid Nuclear disarmament."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Cold War Begins: Issues Dividing U.S., U.S.S.R. Control of postwar Europe Economic aid Nuclear disarmament

3 The Division of Europe 1945--Russians occupy eastern Europe, American troops occupy western Europe Soviet Union seeks eastern European buffer U.S. demands national self- determination through free elections throughout Europe Stalin converts eastern Europe into a system of satellite nations

4 Europe after World War II

5 Lend-Lease (Public Law 77-11) Program under which the US supplied the UK, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945.

6 Withholding Economic Aid Russia devastated by World War II Some Americans seek to influence Russia with Lend-Lease economic aid 1945—US halts Lend-Lease without Russian settlement Leverage lost in shaping Soviet policy

7 The Baruch Plan A proposal by the US government to the UN Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) in its first meeting in June 1946. The United States, Great Britain and Canada called for an international organization to regulate atomic energy. President Truman asked Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson and David Lilienthal to draw up a plan-later known as the4 Baruch Plan.

8 The Atomic Dilemma 1943--nuclear race between U.S., U.S.S.R. 1946--Baruch Plan – rapid reduction of U.S. military force – gradual reduction favors U.S. atomic monopoly Soviet Union – larger conventional army than U.S. – immediate abolition of atomic weapons

9 Containment 1947--George C. Marshall appointed Secretary of State Dean Acheson seeks for U.S. England's former role as arbiter of world affairs George Kennan calls for “containment of Russia’s expansive tendencies”

10 The Truman Doctrine 1947--Truman seeks funds to keep Greece, Turkey in western sphere of influence Truman Doctrine: “support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure” Doctrine an informal declaration of cold war against the Soviet Union

11 The Marshall Plan 1947--George Marshall proposes aid for rebuilding European industries Russia refuses aid 1948--Marshall Plan adopted by Congress Plan fosters western European prosperity

12 Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948-1952

13 The Western Military Alliance 1949--North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – military alliance includes U.S., Canada, most of western Europe – U.S. troops stationed in Europe NATO intensifies Russia's fear of the West

14 The Berlin Blockade June, 1948--Russians blockade Berlin Truman orders airlift to supply the city 1949--Russians end blockade U.S. political victory dramatizes division

15 The Cold War Expands 1947--U.S.-Russian arms race accelerates Conflict expands to Asia

16 The Military Dimension 1947--National Security Act – Department of Defense unifies armed forces – Central Intelligence Agency coordinates intelligence-gathering – National Security Council advises president Defense budget devoted to air power 1949--first Russian atomic bomb explodes, U.S. begins hydrogen bomb development

17 The Cold War in Asia 1945--U.S. consolidates hold on Japan, former Japanese possessions in Pacific 1949--victory of Mao Tse-tung brings China into Soviet orbit Truman refuses recognition of Communist China, begins building up Japan

18 The Korean War June25, 1950--Communist North Korean forces invade U.S.-influenced South Korea Truman makes South Korea’s defense a U.N. effort, sends in U.S. troops – U.S. routs Korean forces in South – Attempt to unify Korea draws in China – U.S. pushed back to South, war a stalemate Result--massive American rearmament

19 The Korean War, 1950-1953

20 The Cold War at Home New Deal economic policies undermined Fears of Communist subversion Republicans use anticommunism to revive their party

21 Truman's Troubles Obstacles to Truman’s Fair Deal reforms – apathetic public – inflation – labor unrest 1946--Republicans win Congress

22 Truman Vindicated 1948--Thomas Dewey versus Truman – Truman thought unelectable – Southern Democrats, Northern liberals desert – Roosevelt coalition reelects Truman on domestic issues Republicans respond by challenging Truman’s handling of the Cold War


24 The Loyalty Issue Fear of Communist subversion Truman administration conducts campaign against “subversives” Democrats blamed for – "losing" China to Communism – Russia's development of a hydrogen bomb

25 McCarthyism in Action 1950--Senator Joseph McCarthy launches anticommunist campaign Innocent overwhelmed by accusations Attacks on privileged bureaucrats – supported by Midwest Republicans – attract Irish, Italian, Polish workers to Republicans

26 The Republicans in Power 1952--Eisenhower captures White House for Republican Party July 27, 1953--stalemate accepted in Korea Eisenhower deals passively with McCarthy 1954--attack on Army discredits McCarthy who is then censured


28 Eisenhower Wages the Cold War Eisenhower relaxes tensions with Russia Eisenhower’s fears – debt imposed by defense spending – possibility of atomic warfare

29 Entanglement in Indochina Eisenhower refuses military aid for French retention of colonial Indochina Victory of Communist Ho Chi Minh prompts intervention to prevent election Vietnam divided South Vietnam under U.S. puppet regime

30 Containing China Tough line against China Drive wedge between China, Russia Strategy ultimately works Effects not immediately apparent

31 Covert Actions Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) used to achieve covert objectives Iran--CIA restores the shah to power Guatemala--CIA ousts leftist government Eastern Europe--refused to help East Germans or Hungarians

32 Waging Peace October, 1957--Russians launch Sputnik October--U.S., U.S.S.R. agree to suspend nuclear testing in the atmosphere November--Berlin blockade threatened May, 1960--U-2 incident

33 The Continuing Cold War January, 1961--Eisenhower warns against growing military-industrial complex Post-war era marked by Cold War rather than peace and tranquility

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