Presentation on theme: "U.S. President Harry Truman (center) shakes the hands of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (left) and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin (right) on the."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. President Harry Truman (center) shakes the hands of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (left) and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin (right) on the opening day of the Potsdam Conference in Germany, 17 July–2 August 1945.
2 US/USSR Relationship during WWII Before the end of the World War II, Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt met at Yalta to plan what should happen when the war ended. They agreed on many points: 1.The establishment of the United Nations 2.Division of Germany into four zones 3.Free elections allowed in the states of Eastern Europe 4.Russia’s promise to join the war against Japan No agreement was reached on Poland. Winston Churchill (England), Franklin Roosevelt (US) and Joseph Stalin (USSR) meet in Yalta in 1945 to decide the fate of post-war Europe.
The Cold War: Roots of the Conflict Soviet Expansion: · The Soviet Union occupied most of Eastern Europe by the end of World War II.
In 1946, Winston Churchill correctly warned that the Soviets were creating an “iron curtain” in Eastern Europe.“iron curtain” Winston Churchill giving the “Iron Curtain” address at Westminster College on March 5, 1946
6 Some major strategies of the Cold War The six major strategies were: 1. Brinkmanship (the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety) 2. Espionage, 3. Foreign aid, 4.Alliances, 5. Propaganda, 6. Surrogate wars
The currency reform in “Bizonia,” 21 June 1948: Every West German citizen received 40 new Deutschmarks. Stalin responded with a blockade of West Berlin.
8 The Berlin Crisis: June 1948-May : three western controlled zones of Germany united; grew in prosperity due to the Marshall Plan West wanted East to rejoin; Stalin feared it would hurt Soviet security. In May 1948 the new currency introduced into the three western zones of Germany provoked the Soviet blockade of Berlin and the Berlin airlift. June 1948: Stalin decided to gain control of West Berlin, which was deep inside the Eastern Sector – Cuts road, rail and canal links with West Berlin, hoping to starve it into submission West responded by airlifting supplies to allow West Berlin to survive Map of Germany divided into zones after WWII Map of Berlin divided into zones after WWII A plane flies in supplies during the Berlin Airlift.
Berlin Airlift June 1948-May 1949
Dean Acheson, U.S. Secretary of State, signs the NATO treaty in Washington on April 4, 1949, as Harry Truman and British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin look on.
11 Post WWII/Cold War Goals for USSR Create greater security for itself – lost tens of millions of people in WWII and Stalin’s purges – feared a strong Germany Establish defensible borders Encourage friendly governments on its borders Spread communism around the world “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.” Excerpt from Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain Speech.”
Harry S. Truman announces the “Truman Doctrine” to the U.S. Congress on March 12, 1947
13 Truman Doctrine 1947: British help Greek government fight communist guerrillas. – They appealed to America for aid, and the response was the Truman Doctrine. – America promised it would support free countries to help fight communism. – Greece received large amounts of arms and supplies and by 1949 had defeated the communists. The Truman Doctrine was significant because it showed that America, the most powerful democratic country, was prepared to resist the spread of communism throughout the world.
15 Marshall Plan In 1947, US Secretary of State Marshall announced the Marshall Plan. – This was a massive economic aid plan for Europe to help it recover from the damage caused by the war. There were two motives for this: – Helping Europe to recover economically would provide markets for American goods, so benefiting American industry. – A prosperous Europe would be better able to resist the spread of communism. This was probably the main motive. A poster promoting the Marshall Plan Secretary of State George Marshall.
Soviet Reaction to Marshal Plan “American Bludgeon in the solution of the market problem”
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world- wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
Containment Kennan’s Long Telegram as published in Foreign Affairs, “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” by “X”, 1947 George Kennan
Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1945
Germany - divided Germany, which had been ruled by the Hitler and the Nazis until their defeat in 1945 was split in two. The western side became West Germany and the eastern side became East Germany. East Germany became another communist country.
Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.
Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
The ‘Truman Doctrine’ Truman had been horrified at the pre-war Allied policy of appeasement and was determined to stand up to any Soviet intimidation. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”. Triggered by British inability to hold the line in Greece, it was followed by aid to Greece and Turkey, and also money to help capitalists to stop communists in Italy and France. It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies.
The ‘Marshall Plan’ The Marshall Plan offered huge sums to enable the economies of Europe to rebuild after World War II, and, by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of Communism. The Soviet Union (USSR) prevented Eastern European countries from receiving American money.
The division of Germany into occupation zones.
Soviet soldier directing traffic in bombed-out Berlin, 1945.
Europe divided 1949
After World War 2, the world changed! Many countries became communist after World War 2 including: Foundation of East German Republic Czechoslovakia (1948) -Poland (1947) -Hungary (1947) -China (1949) -Cuba (1959) -North Korea (1945)
Cold War? The tension and rivalry between the USA and the USSR was described as the Cold War ( ). There was never a real war between the two sides between 1945 and 1990, but they were often very close to war (Hotspots). Both sides got involved in other conflicts in the world to either stop the spread of communism (USA) or help the spread (USSR).
The domino effect The USSR had a lot of influence over many of the new communist countries (especially those in Europe). The USA was very worried that the USSR’s influence over these countries was making the USSR and communism more powerful. The USA did not want communism to spread any further – they were worried about the domino effect (one country becomes communist, then another, then another etc)
Communists shot by the government during the Greek Civil War, 1949.
Mao Zedong, Chinese leader and chairman of the Chinese Communist Party.
Sino-Soviet Pact, 1950 In 1950, the Sino-Soviet pact - “The Treaty of friendship, alliance and mutual assistance” was signed between Mao and Stalin. It promised: Economic aid and Military aid The Soviets also promised to restore Chinese sovereignty over Manchuria and its railways. However, The USSR refused to reduce its interference with Mongolia which China considered to be within its own sphere of influence. The USSR continually refused to allow China to increase its influence in North Korea. They also refused to support China’s desire to obtain Taiwan.
The Korean War
“In due course Korea shall become free and independent.” the Cairo Conference in 1943 The Soviet Union entered Manchuria and controlled north Korea in August 1945 Dean Rusk was asked to find dividing line between the US and Russia in Korea - the 38 th parallel as a dividing line based on a National Geographic map, so the US controlled the other side of Korea Republic of Korea and People’s Democratic Republic of Korea were established respectively in 1947.
Maps of the Korean War
January and April 1950: – Stalin clearly told Kim Il Sung that the Soviet Union would not join the fray if the United States participated in this confrontation. Then Stalin asked Kim to consult with Mao, because Mao had "a good understanding of Oriental matters."
Soviet leaders at Stalin’s funeral from left, Nikita Khrushchev, Lavrentii Beriia, Georgii Malenkov, Nikolai Bulganin, Kliment Voroshilov, and Lazar Kaganovich.
41 Warsaw Pact Warsaw Pact: organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. Established May 14, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland USSR established in in response to NATO treaty Founding members: – Albania (left in 1961 as a result of the Sino-Soviet split) – Bulgaria – Czechoslovakia – Hungary – Poland – Romania – USSR – East Germany (1956) Greatest extent of Warsaw Pact
42 Space Race Cold War tensions increased in the US when the USSR launched Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite into geocentric orbit on October 4, –The race to control space was on. April 12, 1961: Yuri Gagarin became first human in space and first to orbit Earth. US felt a loss of prestige and increased funding for space programs and science education. On May 25,1961, Kennedy gave a speech challenging America to land a man on the moon and return him safely by the end of the decade. Apollo 11 landed on the moon on July 16, 1969.
Nikita Khrushchev, shown here meeting with President John F. Kennedy in 1961, introduced reforms to end Stalin’s terroristic methods of government and raise the Soviet Union’s standard of living.
44 The U-2 Incident USSR was aware of American U-2 spy missions but lacked technology to launch countermeasures until – May 1, 1960: CIA agent Francis Gary Powers’ U-2, was shot down by Soviet missile. Powers was unable to activate plane's self-destruct mechanism before he parachuted to the ground, right into the hands of the KGB. When US learned of Powers' disappearance over USSR, it issued a cover statement claiming that a "weather plane" crashed after its pilot had "difficulties with his oxygen equipment." US officials did not realize: – Plane crashed intact, – Soviets recovered its photography equipment – Captured Powers, whom they interrogated extensively for months before he made a "voluntary confession" and public apology for his part in US espionage
The Berlin Wall 1961
Kennedy in Berlin, 1961
Berlin West Berlin, was an outpost of Western democracy and economic success deep within the communist zone – like a capitalist island within communist East Germany The Berlin Blockade was an attempt to starve West Berlin into submitting [giving up] to the communists The Allied [western powers] airlift signalled the West’s determination to use all resources to defend Berlin. It was feld by both sides that Berlin could act as the trigger for general war between capitalist and communist countries
Another Cold War crisis Background East – West rivalry Berlin divided – contrast the two halves. WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. Seen by USSR as ‘infection’ in the heart of Communist East Germany. EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control
Focus on refugees from East Germany or East Berlin to West , , , , , , , , , ,876
What they wanted The West Prevent USSR from gaining control of East Germany To see a united, democratic Germany The East Maintain control over E Germany Make the West recognise it as an independent state Stop the flood of refugees especially the skilled and professional ones – much needed in E Germany
1958-Soviet demands West should: Recognise GDR Withdraw troops from West Berlin Hand their access routes over to the East German government West refused and Khrushchev backed down.
Events of 1961 June - Khrushchev pressured new American President John F Kennedy Demanded withdrawal of Western forces from West Berlin – Kennedy refused July 23 – Flow of refugees from East to West = 1000 a day July 25 – Kennedy repeats support for West Berlin and announced increase in arms spending
Events cont’d August – Khrushchev and East German govt. orders barbed wire barrier across Berlin, followed by a wall of concrete blocks All of West Berlin encircled apart from access points This was against the Four Power agreement made in 1949.
Results Important results for Berlin, Germany and the Cold War: Berlin Berlin was divided, free access ended between East and West, many families split, many attempted to escape to the West- between 1961 and 1989; 86 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall
Results continued… Kennedy accepted the Soviet action. He refused to use US troops to pull down the wall to avoid war. Kennedy looked weak but West turned it into propaganda – why if Communism was so attractive was a wall needed? 1963 – Kennedy visited West Berlin – pledged continued support – ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’ (I am a Berliner) – famous speech Khrushchev lost face by failing to remove the West from Berlin
The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
John F. Kennedy delivers his famous “Ich Bin Ein Berliner” speech at the Rudolph Wilde Platz in West Berlin, 26 June 1963.
Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet leader from 1953 to 1964, at the UN General Assembly in 1960
Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. you De-Stalinization Program
Khrushchev visits display of U-2 wreckage. May 1960
Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev: Khrushchev promoted Brezhnev’s career, but in 1964 Brezhnev played a leading role in the plot that removed Khrushchev from power.
Regional Conflicts Israel vs. Syria/Egypt/PLO Ethiopia vs. Somalia (1970s) Taiwan vs. China (1949-present) S. Korea vs. N. Korea (1948-present) S. Viet Nam vs. N. Viet Nam ( ) FNLA/UNITA vs. MPLA (Angola, 1970s-80s) Nicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador (1970s-80s) USUSSR
The Vietnam War c
Prague Spring 1968
68 The Slow Thaw… In 1969 Nixon began negotiations with USSR on SALT I, common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Agreement. SALT I froze the number of ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled. It was the first effort between US/USSR to stop increase nuclear weapons. SALT II was a second round of US/USSR talks ( ), which sought to reduce manufacture of nuclear weapons. SALT II was the first nuclear treaty seeking real reductions in strategic forces to 2,250 of all categories on both sides. Nixon and Brezhnev toast the SALT I treaty.Carter and Brezhnev sign the SALT II treaty.
Leonid Brezhnev, Soviet leader from 1964 to 1982, and U.S. president Richard Nixon, signing a nuclear arms limitation treaty in 1973 at the White House
Decreased tensions between US and Soviet Union – Nuclear arms agreements – US and China Détente
Mikhail Gorbachev, the last Soviet leader, whose reform policies led to the end of the Cold War but nonetheless ultimately failed to rebuild the Soviet Union and contributed to its collapse
72 Cold War Thaw Continues Gorbachev becomes Soviet premier and understands that the Soviet economy cannot compete with the West, partly because of Afghanistan and partly because of the costs of keeping up militarily. Gorbachev recognizes there is increasing unrest in the country. He tries to reform the USSR with glasnost (= openness: think “glass” because you can see through it) and perestroika (=restructuring: think “structure/stroika”). Gorbachev is further pressured to reform the USSR when Reagan gives his speech in Germany challenging Gorbachev to “tear down this wall.” President Reagan delivers his speech in Berlin. Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet leader from 1985 to 1991, and U.S. president Ronald Reagan relax during their first summit meeting, which took place in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1985.
74 The Wall Falls, 1989 A wave of rebellion against Soviet influence occurs throughout its European allies. Poland’s Solidarity movement breaks the Soviet hold on that country Hungary removed its border restrictions with Austria. Riots and protests break out in East Germany. East Germans storm the wall. Confused and outnumbered, border guards do not fight back. The wall is breached. Eventually East and West Germany are reunited in 1990.
Boris Yeltsin reading a statement condemning the coup against Mikhail Gorbachev while standing on a tank on August 19, 1991
76 The USSR Dissolves On December 21, 1991, the presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords declaring the USSR dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place. On December 25, 1991, Gorbachev yielded as the president of the USSR, declaring the office extinct. He turned the powers that until then were vested in him over to Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia. The following day, the Supreme Soviet, the highest governmental body of the Soviet Union, recognized the collapse of the Soviet Union and dissolved itself. – This is generally recognized as the official, final dissolution of the Soviet Union as a functioning state. Boris Yeltsin (far left) stands on a tank to defy the 1991 coup Rocky beats Ivan Drago.