4The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?” The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
5Improve your knowledge The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post-war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
6Premier Nikita Khrushchev De-Stalinization Program About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury youDe-Stalinization Program
8The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]US & the Western DemocraciesGOAL spread world-wide CommunismGOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan]METHODOLOGIES:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars”Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
9The Cold War: Roots of the Conflict Soviet Expansion:· The Soviet Union occupied most of Eastern Europe by the end of World War II.
10In 1946, Winston Churchill correctly warned that the Soviets were creating an “iron curtain” in Eastern Europe.Winston Churchill giving the “Iron Curtain” address at Westminster College on March 5, 1946
12Divided Germany Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe theseparating ofThose communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.Divided Germany
13Improve your knowledge Divided BerlinThe Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
14The ‘Truman Doctrine’Truman had been horrified at the pre-war Allied policy of appeasement and was determined to stand up to any Soviet intimidation. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”.Triggered by British inability to hold the line in Greece, it was followed by aid to Greece and Turkey, and also money to help capitalists to stop communists in Italy and France. It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies.
15The ‘Marshall Plan’The Marshall Plan offered huge sums to enable the economies of Europe to rebuild after World War II, and, by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of Communism.The Soviet Union (USSR) prevented Eastern European countries from receiving American money.
16An overview of the Cold War How can a war be ‘cold’?What were the Hotspots of the Cold War?
17After World War 2 the Cold War began and caused tension throughout the world. The USA and the USSR were the two world Superpowers.The USA was a capitalist society with a democracy.The USSR was a communist country with a dictatorship.Both wanted to be the most powerful nation in the world.
18Nuclear tensionsThe USA had shown its atomic power when it exploded the A-bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War 2.The USSR was also developing atomic weapons/bombs.The USA and the USSR were in competition with each other to have the best, most powerful weapons in the world – this was called the Arms Race.
19After World War 2, the world changed! Many countries became communist after World War 2 including:Czechoslovakia (1948)Poland (1947)Hungary (1947)China (1949)Cuba (1959)North Korea (1945)
20Germany - dividedGermany, which had been ruled by the Hitler and the Nazis until their defeat in 1945 was split in two.The western side became West Germany and the eastern side became East Germany.East Germany became another communist country.
21The domino effectThe USSR had a lot of influence over many of the new communist countries (especially those in Europe).The USA was very worried that the USSR’s influence over these countries was making the USSR and communism more powerful.The USA did not want communism to spread any further – they were worried about the domino effect (one country becomes communist, then another, then another etc)
22Cold War?The tension and rivalry between the USA and the USSR was described as the Cold War ( ).There was never a real war between the two sides between 1945 and 1990, but they were often very close to war (Hotspots). Both sides got involved in other conflicts in the world to either stop the spread of communism (USA) or help the spread (USSR).
25BerlinWest Berlin, was an outpost of Western democracy and economic success deep within the communist zone – like a capitalist island within communist East GermanyThe Berlin Blockade was an attempt to starve West Berlin into submitting [giving up] to the communistsThe Allied [western powers] airlift signalled the West’s determination to use all resources to defend Berlin. It was feld by both sides that Berlin could act as the trigger for general war between capitalist and communist countries
29By Mr Crowe www.SchoolHistory.co.uk THE BERLIN WALL
30Another Cold War crisis BackgroundEast – West rivalryBerlin divided – contrast the two halves.WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. Seen by USSR as ‘infection’ in the heart of Communist East Germany.EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control
31Focus on refugees from East Germany or East Berlin to West ,245,648,390,870,622,917,026,356,632,876
32What they wanted The West Prevent USSR from gaining control of East GermanyTo see a united, democratic GermanyThe EastMaintain control over E GermanyMake the West recognise it as an independent stateStop the flood of refugees especially the skilled and professional ones – much needed in E Germany
331958-Soviet demands West should: Recognise GDR Withdraw troops from West BerlinHand their access routes over to the East German governmentWest refused and Khrushchev backed down.
34Events of 1961June - Khrushchev pressured new American President John F KennedyDemanded withdrawal of Western forces from West Berlin – Kennedy refusedJuly 23 – Flow of refugees from East to West = 1000 a dayJuly 25 – Kennedy repeats support for West Berlin and announced increase in arms spending
35Events cont’d13-22 August – Khrushchev and East German govt. orders barbed wire barrier across Berlin, followed by a wall of concrete blocksAll of West Berlin encircled apart from access pointsThis was against the Four Power agreement made in 1949.
37Results Important results for Berlin, Germany and the Cold War: Berlin was divided, free access ended between East and West, many families split, many attempted to escape to the West-between 1961 and 1989; 86 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall
39Results continued…Kennedy accepted the Soviet action. He refused to use US troops to pull down the wall to avoid war.Kennedy looked weak but West turned it into propaganda – why if Communism was so attractive was a wall needed?1963 – Kennedy visited West Berlin – pledged continued support – ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’ (I am a Berliner) – famous speechKhrushchev lost face by failing to remove the West from BerlinLINK:CNN - Cold War-The Wall