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Chem 100 Text book Fundamentals of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, 5/e John McMurry Mary E. Castellion David S. Ballantine ISBN-10: 0131877488.

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Presentation on theme: "Chem 100 Text book Fundamentals of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, 5/e John McMurry Mary E. Castellion David S. Ballantine ISBN-10: 0131877488."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chem 100 Text book Fundamentals of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry, 5/e John McMurry Mary E. Castellion David S. Ballantine ISBN-10: ISBN-13:

2 Chapter One Matter and Life Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 5 th Edition ISBN-10: James Mayhugh Oklahoma City University  2007 Prentice Hall, Inc.

3 Chemistry 100 Chapter One 3 Atoms & molecules Bonding & Polarity Forces between molecules To react or not to react Chemical Reactions What is the Secret to Successfully completing this class?

4 Chapter One 4 Outline 1.1 Chemistry: The Central Science 1.2 States of Matter 1.3 Classification of Matter 1.4 An Example of a Chemical Reaction 1.5 Chemical Elements and Symbols 1.6 Elements and the Periodic Table

5 A Chemists’ World Chapter One 5

6 6 1.1 Chemistry: The Central Science Chemistry is often referred to as “The Central Science”

7 Chapter One 7 Chemistry: The study of the properties and transformations of matter. ► ► Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies space – things you can see, touch, taste, or smell… any 3-D object ► ► Property: A characteristic that can be used to describe a substance. Substances have both physical and chemical properties. ► ► Transformations: A change in the properties of matter with time. There are physical changes and chemical changes….from rubbing two sticks together to make fire-to-splitting atoms.

8 Chapter One 8 Substances have both physical and chemical properties. ► ► Physical Properties: Density, color, and melting point are physical properties of matter. Observing a physical property can be done without altering the makeup of a substance. ► ► Chemical Properties: Chemical composition, what matter is made of, and chemical reactivity, how matter behaves, are chemical properties. Observing a chemical property alters the substance.

9 Chapter One 9 Physical Change: Does not alter the chemical makeup of a substance. ► ► Chemical reactivity is unchanged. ► ► Changes in state, changes in particle size, and the formation / separation of mixtures are all examples of physical change. ► ► Melting of ice to form liquid water is a physical change. In this case only a change in form takes place. The chemical makeup of the substance remains H 2 O.

10 Chapter One 10 Chemical Change: Alters the makeup of a substance. ► ► Reactivity changes with the formation of new substances. ► ► Heat, light, or electrical energy is often emitted or absorbed. ► ► Potassium reacting with water is an example of a chemical change.

11 Which is a Chemical and Physical Chapter One 11

12 Which is a physical change? Boiling of liquid water to form steam (gaseous water) Combustion of gasoline to form carbon dioxide and water Electrolysis of water to form hydrogen and oxygen Neutralization of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide to form water and sodium chloride

13 Which is a physical change? Boiling of liquid water to form steam (gaseous water) Combustion of gasoline to form carbon dioxide and water Electrolysis of water to form hydrogen and oxygen Neutralization of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide to form water and sodium chloride

14 Which is a chemical change? Dissolution of solid potassium chloride in water to form aqueous potassium chloride Oxidation of copper metal to form copper(II) oxide Sublimation of dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) to form gaseous carbon dioxide Vaporization of liquid ammonia to form gaseous ammonia

15 Which is a chemical change? Dissolution of solid potassium chloride in water to form aqueous potassium chloride Oxidation of copper metal to form copper(II) oxide Sublimation of dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) to form gaseous carbon dioxide Vaporization of liquid ammonia to form gaseous ammonia

16 Chapter One States of Matter Common states of matter (3 dimensional objects) are: solid, liquid, and gas. ► ► Solid: A substance that has a definite shape and volume. Solids are rigid and dense. ► ► Liquid: A substance that has a definite volume but that changes shape to fill the container. Liquids are dense and fluid.

17 Chapter One 17 Common states of matter are: solid, liquid, and gas. ► ► Gas: A substance that has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape. Gases are low density fluids. ► ► All Matter exists in each of these three states depending on the pressure and the temperature. The conversion of a substance from one state into another is known as change of state.

18 18 The three states of water or H 2 O

19 Chapter One Classification of Matter ► ► Pure Substance: Matter that is uniform in its chemical composition and properties. Sugar is a pure substance and water is a pure substance. ► ► Mixture: A blend of two or more pure substances in any ratio, each retaining their identity. Dissolving sugar in water creates a mixture. ► ► Physical changes can separate mixtures into one or more pure substances. Evaporation and condensation can separate water from sugar.

20 Chapter One 20 ► ► Element: Pure substance that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler substances. Hydrogen and oxygen are examples of elements. ► ► Chemical Compounds: Two or more elements combined chemically in specific ratios to form a pure substance. Water is a compound composed of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. ► ► Chemical changes can separate chemical compounds into elements. Water can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen by passing an electric current through it.

21 Classify As a pure substance, mixture, physical or chemical change, element or compound. Carbon Peanut & butter sandwich Molten iron cools to solid iron Oxygen Digesting a peanut & butter sandwich Sheet Rock or CaSO 4 It starts to Rain Brewing Coffee Chapter One 21

22 Chapter One Example of a Chemical Reaction ► Nickel, a solid metal, is mixed with a colorless solution of hydrochloric acid in a test tube. ► The nickel is slowly eaten away, the colorless solution turns green, and a colorless gas bubbles out of the test tube.

23 Chapter One 23 ► ► Reactants: One or more starting materials. Between reactants, the “+” can be read as “reacts with.” ► ► Products: One or more substances formed as a result of a chemical reaction. Between products, the “+” can be read as “and.” ► ► Between products and reactants, the “  ” can be read as “to form.” Ni + 2HCl NiCl 2 + H 2

24 Chapter One Chemical Elements and Symbols ► ► 117 elements have been discovered. ► ► 90 occur naturally. ► ► 24 are produced artificially. ► ► Some familiar elements are iron, tin, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, etc. ► ► Some unfamiliar elements are niobium, rhodium, thulium, californium, etc.

25 Chapter One Elements and the Periodic Table Periodic Table: 114 elements in tabular format.

26 Chapter One 26 ► ► Each element has its own unique symbol. One or two letter symbols are used to represent elements. The first letter is always capitalized and the second letter is always a lowercase. Examples: C, Cr, P, Pb ► ► Most symbols are derived from modern names and are easy to remember. Examples: “H” for hydrogen, “O” for oxygen, “N” for nitrogen, etc.

27 Chapter One 27 ► ► A few symbols for elements are derived from their Latin names and are more difficult to learn. Examples: “Na” for sodium comes from its Latin name Natrium, “Pb” for lead comes from its Latin name Plumbum. ► ► All naturally occurring elements are not equally abundant. Oxygen and silicon together constitute 75% of the Earth’s crust.

28 Chapter One 28

29 Find on your periodic table Ca C Co CA Iron Iridium Californium Neodymium Chapter One 29 Calcium-20 Carbon-6 Cobalt-27 State of California Fe-26 Ir-77 Cf-98 Nd-60

30 Chapter One 30 Large amounts of information regarding the properties of elements are embedded in the periodic table. Elements are roughly divided into 3 groups: ► ► Metals: Found on the left side of the table. ► ► Nonmetals: Found on the right side of the table. ► ► Metalloids: Found along a diagonal line between metals and nonmetals.

31 Chapter One 31 Metals: 90 of the 114 elements are metals. They appear on the left side of the periodic table. Some common properties of metals are: ► ► Solid at room temperature (except mercury which is a liquid) ► ► Good conductor of heat and electricity ► ► Lustrous on fresh surfaces ► ► Malleable and ductile

32 Chapter One 32 Metals: (a) Gold is very unreactive and is used primarily in jewelry and in electronic components. (b) Zinc, an essential nutrient, is used in the manufacture of brass, roofing materials, and batteries. (c) Copper is widely used in electrical wiring, in water pipes, and in coins.

33 Chapter One 33 Nonmetals: Appear on the right side of the periodic table. 17 elements are nonmetals. ► ► Eleven are gases at room temperature (H, N, O, F, Ne, etc.). ► ► Five are solids (C, P, S, Se, I). ► ► One is a liquid (Br). ► ► Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity.

34 Chapter One 34 Nonmetals: (a) Nitrogen constitutes almost 80% of air and is a colorless gas at room temperature. (b) Sulfur, a yellow solid, is found in large underground deposits in Texas and Louisiana. (c) Bromine is a corrosive, dark red liquid.

35 Chapter One 35 Metalloids: Metalloids are semiconductors and are important to the electronics industry. (a) Boron and (b) silicon are examples of metalloids.

36 Metalloids: Seven elements are metalloids. Their properties are between those of metals and nonmetals. Boron, Silicon, Germanium, Arsenic, Antimony, Tellurium, and Astatine. Chapter One 36

37 The element indicated in blue on the periodic table is a metal metalloid mixture nonmetal.

38 The element indicated in blue on the periodic table is a metal metalloid mixture nonmetal.

39 Chapter One 39 Chemical Formula: A notation for a chemical compound using symbols and subscripts to show how many atoms of each element are present. When no subscript is given for an element a subscript of “1” is understood.

40 How many atoms of hydrogen are in one molecule of isopropyl alcohol, (CH 3 ) 2 CHOH? One Two Three Eight

41 How many atoms of hydrogen are in one molecule of isopropyl alcohol, (CH 3 ) 2 CHOH? One Two Three Eight

42 Learning check Acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin, has 9 carbon atoms, 8 hydrogen atoms, and 4 oxygen atoms per molecule. What is the molecular formula of aspirin? C9H8O4C9H8O4 Chapter One 42

43 Chapter One 43 Chapter Summary ► ► Matter is anything with mass that occupies volume. ► ► Matter can be classified as solid, liquid, or gas. ► ► A solid has a definite volume and shape, a liquid has a definite volume but indefinite shape, and a gas has neither a definite volume nor shape. ► ► A substance can be characterized as being either pure or a mixture. ► ► A pure substance is uniform in its composition and properties, but a mixture can vary in both composition and properties.

44 Chapter One 44 Chapter Summary Cont. ► ► Pure substances are either elements or chemical compounds. ► ► Elements are fundamental substances that cannot be chemically changed into anything simpler. ► ► A chemical compound can be broken down by chemical change into simpler substances. ► ► A property describes or identifies something. ► ► A physical property can be seen or measured without changing the chemical identity of the substance.

45 Chapter One 45 Chapter Summary Cont. ► ► A chemical property can only be seen or measured when the substance undergoes a chemical change. ► ► Elements are represented by symbols. Most symbols are the first one or two letters of the element name. ► ► Some symbols are derived from Latin names. ► ► All the known elements are organized into a tabular form called the periodic table. ► ► Most elements are metals, 17 are nonmetals, and 7 are metalloids.

46 Chapter One 46 End of Chapter 1


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