Presentation on theme: "Warm Up 1. A small amount of a strong smelling sulfur compound is dissolved in natural gas to give gas a detectable odor. Which substance is the solvent?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Warm Up1. A small amount of a strong smelling sulfur compound is dissolved in natural gas to give gas a detectable odor. Which substance is the solvent?2. True or False: A mixture has a set ratio of components.3. Carbon dioxide is a gas at room temperature, but the element carbon is a solid. How can these two substances be so different?
2 ElementsA substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances.Pure substance – only has one type of particle (atoms).Elements are found on the periodic table111 elements known
3 ElementsEvery atom in a piece of gold is the same, no matter where it is found.Every atom of iron is the samespoon, steel rod, meteorite
4 I can describe the characteristics of elements, and give examples.
5 Properties of Elements Characteristic properties – do not depend on the amt. of the element present.Boiling point, melting pt., density, reactivity with acid, color, hardness, flammabilityCan be used to identify elements
6 Properties of Elements Identified by their physical and chemical propertiesCategorized by similar propertiesMetals, nonmetals, or metalloids
7 Classifying Elements Metals Shiny, conduct heat and electricity, malleable, ductileAll are solid except mercuryExamples: copper (Cu), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), gold (Au), mercury (Hg)
8 Can be solid, liquid, or gas Classifying Elements2. NonmetalsOpposite of metalsdull, poor conductors heat and electricity, brittle, not malleable, not ductileCan be solid, liquid, or gasExamples: sulfur (S), iodine (I), neon (Ne), chlorine (Cl), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H)
9 Properties of both metals and nonmetals Classifying elements3. MetalloidsProperties of both metals and nonmetalsSemi-conductorsSome shiny, some dull, somewhat malleable and ductile, some conduct heat and electricitySolidsExamples: boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te)
10 I can distinguish between metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
11 SubstancesMatter that has the same composition and properties throughout is called a substance.When different elements combine, other substances are formed.
12 Substances Contains only one particle Can exist in 3 states of matter Can be elements or compoundsPicture from
13 CompoundsA compound is a substance whose smallest unit is made up of atoms of more than one element bonded together.Compounds often have properties that are different from the elements that make them up.Examples: Water, salt, sugar
14 Compounds Have Formulas H20 is the chemical formula for water, and H2O2 is the formula for hydrogen peroxide.The formula tells you which elements make up a compound as well as how many atoms of each element are present.
15 How to read a formulaH20This is a subscript. It tells us how many atoms of that element exist in one unit of that compound.Hydrogen is made of 2 H atoms and 1 O atom.No subscript is used when only one atom of an element is present.
16 Let’s try it…Using your white board tell how many atoms there are in each element.Sulfuric Acid H2SO42 Hydrogen1 Sulfur4 OxygenHydrogen Peroxide H2O22 Oxygen
17 And some more formulas… Carbon Dioxide CO21 Carbon2 OxygenCarbon Monoxide CO1 OxygenCalcium Carbonate (Found in shells, eggshells, antacid) CaCO31 Calcium3 Oxygen
18 Compound Review A pure compound has the same elements and the same amount of elements all of the timeElements are chemically combinedCompound properties are different from the properties of the elementsThey cannot be separated physicallyPhysical properties such as boiling point or melting point of pure substances are do not change
19 MixturesA mixture is a combination of two or more substances where there is no chemical combination or reaction.
20 A mixture is a combination of two or more substances where there is no chemical combination or reaction.
21 Mixtures combine physically in no specific proportions. They just mix.
22 Solids, liquids and gases can be combined to create a mixture.
23 Mixture TypesMIXTURES MAY BE HOMOGENEOUS OR HETEROGENEOUS
24 Homogeneous Mixtures Homogeneous Mixtures: The prefix: "homo"- indicates the sameHave the same uniform appearance and composition throughout
26 What is a solution? A solution is a mixture of two or more substances. At least two substances must be mixed in order to have a solution
27 A solution has two parts The substance in the smallest amount and the one that DISSOLVES is called the SOLUTEThe substance in the larger amount is called the SOLVENT - it does the dissolvingIN most common instances water is the solvent
28 Examples of solutionsSalt waterClean AirVinegar
29 Heterogeneous Mixtures: The prefix: "hetero"- indicates differenceA heterogeneous mixture consists of visibly different substances or phasesTwo or more parts can be seen
31 Suspensions A SUSPENSION is a heterogeneous mixture of large particles These particles are visible and will settle out on standingExamples of suspensions are: fine sand or silt in water or Italian salad dressing
32 Compounds vs Mixtures Mixtures Compounds Not chemically combined Combine chemically forming moleculesCan combine in any proportionCombine in set proportionsSeparated chemicallySeparated physically
33 Comparing Elements, Compounds & Mixtures What are they made up of?Can they be broken down? If yes, how?Do they keep or lose their original properties?Draw what the particles look like.
34 Identify the following with as many terms as apply Table saltSaladMayonnaiseItalian dressingPepsiOxygenHydrogenWaterMixtureElementCompoundSuspensionColloidSolutionHomogeneousHeterogeneous