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Properties of Matter. Look at this picture… What do you see?

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Presentation on theme: "Properties of Matter. Look at this picture… What do you see?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Properties of Matter

2 Look at this picture… What do you see?

3 Its all matter  Everything around you is matter… even things you do not see like air and microbes  A Substance is matter that has a uniform and unchanging chemical composition  Table salt or NaCL, (Sodium Chloride) is a substance  Sea water is Not a substance

4 Substances are key in chemistry  Substances change into different substances.

5 Physical Properties  A Physical Property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the samples composition  Physical properties can describe matter and substances Examples: Density, Color, Odor, Taste, Hardness, Melting Point, Boiling Point

6 Physical Properties

7 Chemical Properties  Another property of matter are chemical properties  Chemical Properties are the ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more substances

8 States of Matter  All matter exists as one of three physical forms Solids – a form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume Wood, Iron and Paper are examples The particles of a solid are packed tightly together and when heated they expand

9 Liquid  Liquids are a form of matter that flows, has constant volume and takes the shape of its container  Ex. Water, Blood, Mercury  The particles in a liquid are not held rigidly together and are less closely packed than solids and can move past each other.

10 Gas  A gas is a form of matter that expands to fill the entire container  The particles of gas are very far apart compared to liquids and solids  Gases can be compressed because they are so far apart  Vapor is the gaseous state of a substance that is solid or liquid at room temperature

11 work  Classify the 3 following events as physical or chemical properties.  1. Water and oil not mixing together  2. A screwdriver rusting due to being outside  3. Vinegar and Baking soda reacting to make a “volcano”  4. Which of the following pictures shows a solid, which a liquid, which a gas? A. B. C.

12 Answers  Classify the 3 following events as physical or chemical properties.  1. Water and oil not mixing together physical  2. A screwdriver rusting due to being outside chemical  3. Vinegar and Baking soda reacting to make a “volcano” chemical  4. Which of the following pictures shows a solid A, which a liquid C, which a gas B A. B. C.

13 Changes in Matter  Copper can undergo physical changes and chemical changes  Physical: It can be drawn out into a wire into a wire  Chemical: When combined with Ammonia it turns a with Ammonia it turns a Blue-ish color

14 Physical Change  Changes which alter a substance without changing its composition are physical changes.  Ex. Cutting a piece of paper, breaking a crystal  Name some other physical changes

15 Phase changes – a form of physical change  As temperature and/or pressure change substances can change forms or phases  At 0° Celsius water or H2O exists as a solid, known as ice  As heat is added the ice melts it becomes liquid water.  When the temperature of the liquid water reaches 100 ° Celsius it changes again it Vapor, the gaseous form of water  These changes are physical because even though the water in different states has different appearances, it is still water, H 2 O

16 Phase Change Vocabulary  The words; Boil, Freeze, Condense, Vaporize, or Melt, are referring to phase changes  Phase changes indicate matter changing from liquid to gas, solid to liquid, etc.

17 Chemical Changes  A process that involves one or more substances changing into new substances is a chemical change or chemical reaction  Substances formed in the reaction have different compositions and different properties than the starting substances

18 Evidence of Chemical Reactions  Always produces a change in properties SOMETHING NEW!!! !

19 Law of Conservation of Mass  Mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction  Mass of reactants = Mass of Products  Discovered in the 1700s by Antoine Lavoisier

20 Example  In an experiment, 10.0g of red mercury (II) oxide powder is placed in an open flask and heated until it is converted to liquid mercury and oxygen gas. The liquid mercury has a mass 9.26g. What is the mass of the Oxygen gas formed in the reaction?  Remember the Law Of Conservation OF Mass.

21 More work  Identify the following as physical or chemical changes  1. Liquid Nitrogen is released on the floor of the classroom, it quickly evaporates and is suddenly gone.  2. A firework is lit and quickly launches into the air and then explodes into a beautiful red circle.  3. You are having a glass of iced tea on a hot summer day, you suddenly notice your glass is “sweating” and is covered with tiny drops of water outside the glass

22 More Answers  Identify the following as physical or chemical changes  1. Liquid Nitrogen is released on the floor of the classroom, it quickly evaporates and is suddenly gone. physical  2. A firework is lit and quickly launches into the air and then explodes into a beautiful red circle. chemical  3. You are having a glass of iced tea on a hot summer day, you suddenly notice your glass is “sweating” and is covered with tiny drops of water outside the glass physical

23 Classifying Matter  We classify matter as either Substances (having a uniform composition) and Mixtures.  Mixtures are a combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its own properties

24 Heterogeneous Mixtrues  Heterogeneous Mixtures do not blend smoothly throughout and individual substances are visible

25 Homogeneous Mixtures  Homogeneous mixtures have the same composition throughout and always have a single phase.  Also referred to as solutions

26

27 Different types of solutions  Gas-Gas - air is a mix of Nitrogen, oxygen, and argon gases  Gas-Liquid - Carbonated beverages  Solid-Liquid - Kool-Aid contains sugar and other solids in water  Solid-Solid – Steel is an alloy of iron containing carbon

28 Separating Mixtures – most matter exists as mixtures  Filtration – using paper or another porous material to separate heterogeneous mixtures  Distillation – uses differences of boiling points of liquids to separate a homogeneous mixture of liquids

29 Separating Matter  Crystallization – forming solids from a liquid solution containing solids  Chromatography – separates components of a mixture on tendency to move across another material ( not covered but  You should remember this)

30 Elements and Compounds  An element is a pure substance which can not be separated into a simpler form by physical or chemical means  91 naturally occurring elements on earth  (Copper, Gold, Silver, Hydrogen etc.)  Each has a one or two letter symbol  Au= gold, O= oxygen, Hg = Mercury, C= carbon

31 Compounds  Compounds are combinations of two or more different elements that are combined chemically  Water, table salt, aspirin are all compounds  Table Salt = Sodium (Na) Chloride (Cl) or NaCl  Water = Di-Hydrogen (H2) Oxide (O) or H2O

32 THE END


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