2 Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space Mass – a measurement that reflects the amount of matterWeight – a measure of the amount of matter and the effect of Earth;s gravitational pull on that matter.Air is matter!
3 States of Matter Solid – matter with its own definite shape and volume Ex: wood, iron, paper, sugarLiquid – matter that flowsEx: water, blood, mercuryGas – matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container and fills the entire volumeNeon, methane, air
4 States of Matter State Shape Volume Compressible? Solid Liquid Gas DefiniteNoLiquidIndefiniteGasYes
5 Physical PropertiesA characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the samples composition.DensityColorOdorTasteHardnessMelting pointBoiling pointSolubility
6 Extensive Properties Intensive Properties Depends of how much (the extent) matter there isEx: mass, length, volumeIntensive PropertiesIndependent (does NOT depend) of how much matterSubstance can often be identified by intensive propertyEx: density, temperaturePour two quantities of same-temperature water together and take temp. again. No change.Put a cork in a small beaker of water. It floats. Repeat with a large beaker of water. It still floats.
7 Chemical PropertiesThe ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substancesCombustibilitySodium reacts with water, may combustReactivity with other substancesIron rusts when exposed to oxygen
8 Types of Matter Substance (Pure Substance) Element Compound Mixture Matter that has uniform and unchanging compositionOnly 1 type of matter presentElementA pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical meansCompoundCombination of two or more different elements chemically combinedMixtureCombination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substances retains its chemical properties
9 Classes of Matter Matter Pure substance mixture element homogeneous compoundheterogeneousPure substances- on periodic tableCompounds- water, salt, sugar, carbon dioxideSolutions- salt water, air, brass
10 Mixtures Homogeneous Mixture- Heterogeneous Mixture- Has a constant composition throughoutSingle phaseLooks the same throughoutAlso referred to as solutionsHeterogeneous Mixture-Does not blend smoothly throughoutIndividual substances remain distinct
11 Examples Element Compound Heterogenous Mix. Homogenous Mix. Carbon IronGoldMercuryCompoundWaterCarbon DioxideTable SaltAspirinHeterogenous Mix.ConcreteMilkWoodSandHomogenous Mix.AirSalt waterWhite goldBrassBrass is a mixture of copper and zincMixture- contains more than 1 substance. Can be separated into pure components.Homogeneous- uniform in composition (solutions) i.e. salt water, airHeterogeneous- not uniform throughout i.e. clay in water, soup, concreteSeparation methods- filtration, evaporation, centrifuge (blood), magnets
12 General Classes of Elements Metals –Have luster (shine)Malleable (not brittle)Ductile (can be drawn into wires)Conduct heat and electricityNonmetals –BrittlePoor conductors of heat and electricityMetalloids –Have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals
13 Solutions A homogeneous mixture Composed of 2 parts Solvent – substance there is more ofDissolving substanceSolute – substance that is added to solventDissolved substanceConcentrated solutions have a lot of solute in the solvent.
20 Water breaking down into hydrogen and oxygen gases Ice changing to liquid waterPhysical changeChemical change
21 Law of Conservation of Mass Mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction, it is always conserved.Mass of reactants always equals mass of reactants.Massreactants = Massproducts
22 Law of Definite Proportions Regardless of amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass.Water, H2OAlways made of 2:H’s and 1:O no matter how much water you have
23 Percent by Mass% by mass = Mass of Element X 100 Mass of Comound
24 Law of Multiple Proportions When different compounds are formed by a combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers.H2O vs. H2O2Water has 2 H’s for every 1 OHydrogen peroxide has 2 H’s for every 2 O’s
25 Methods of Separating Mixtures Use different properties of substances to separate themSand and iron filingsSand and saltSand and waterWater and salt waterOil in water (immiscible liquids)Mixture of pigmentsRemove iron with magnetDissolve salt, evaporate waterfilterDistill the waterSettle and extract less dense liquidPaper chromatography
27 Chemical Symbols First letter is ALWAYS capitalized Second letter, if there is one, is NEVER capitalizedCo and CO are very different!Some elements use their Latin name2 O means 2 oxygen atomsO2 means 2 oxygen atoms are chemically bonded together