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Chapter One Matter and Life Fundamentals of General, Organic & Biological Chemistry.

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1 Chapter One Matter and Life Fundamentals of General, Organic & Biological Chemistry

2 2 1.1 Chemistry: The Central Science Chemistry is often referred to as “The Central Science” because it is crucial to all other sciences.

3 3 Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies space – things you can see, touch, taste, or smell. Property: a characteristic that can be used to describe a substance. Size, color, temperature are most familiar properties of matter. Less familiar properties include: Chemical composition: what matter is made of. Chemical Reactivity: how matters behave.

4 4  Physical Change: Does not alter the chemical makeup of a substance. Change is reversible. Melting of solid ice is a physical change. In this case only change in form takes place and the change is reversible. Chemical Change: Alters chemical makeup of a substance. Change is irreversible. Rusting of iron is a chemical change. Here, iron combines with oxygen and produces a new substance rust.

5 5 States of Matter

6 6  Solids have  A definite shape.  A definite volume.  Particles that are close together in a fixed arrangement.  Particles that move very slowly. Solids

7 7  Liquids have  An indefinite shape, but a definite volume.  The same shape as their container.  Particles that are close together, but mobile.  Particles that move slowly. Liquids

8 8  Gases have  An indefinite shape.  An indefinite volume.  The same shape and volume as their container.  Particles that are far apart.  Particles that move fast. Gases

9 9 Summary of the States of Matter

10 10 Identify each as: 1) solid 2) liquid or 3) gas. ___ A. It has a definite volume, but takes the shape of the container. __ B. Its particles are moving rapidly. __ C. It fills the volume of a container. __ D. It has particles in a fixed arrangement. __ E. It has particles close together that are mobile. Learning Check

11 11 Identify each as: 1) solid 2) liquid or 3) gas. 2 A. It has a definite volume, but takes the shape of the container. 3 B. Its particles are moving rapidly. 3 C. It fills the volume of a container. 1 D. It has particles in a fixed arrangement. 2 E. It has particles close together that are mobile. Solution

12 Classification of Matter Pure Substance: Uniform in its chemical composition and properties. Sugar and water are pure substances. Mixture: Composition and properties may vary. Different amounts of sugar dissolved in water will determine sweetness of water. Sugar water is an example of a mixture.

13 13 Chemical Compounds: Substance that can be broken down into simpler substances. Water is a chemical compound since it can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen by passing electric current through it. Element: Substance that can not be broken down chemically into simpler substances. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen are example of elements.

14 14 The classification of matter is summarized in Fig 1.4 below.

15 Elements and Symbols

16 16  Elements are pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes.  Elements are the building blocks of matter.  There are 115 elements known today. gold carbon aluminum Elements

17 17 Sources of Some Element Names

18 18  Every element has a symbol that represents its name.  Symbols consist of 1 or 2 letters.  Only the first letter in a symbol is capitalized. Examples: 1-Letter Symbols 2-Letter Symbols C carbon Co cobalt N nitrogenCa calcium F fluorine Al aluminum O oxygen Mg magnesium Symbols of Elements

19 19 Several symbols are derived from Latin names. Some examples are shown below: copper, Cu (cuprum) gold, Au (aurum) iron, Fe (ferrum) silver, Ag (argentum) Symbols from Latin Names

20 20 Carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen are the most abundant elements in the human body. Elements in the Body

21 21  The physical properties of an element are the characteristics that can be observed without changing the substance. Physical Properties

22 22 Select the correct symbol for each: A. Calcium 1) C2) Ca3) CA B. Sulfur 1) S2) Sl3) Su C. Iron 1) Ir2) FE3) Fe Learning Check

23 23 Select the correct name for each symbol: A. N 1) neon 2) nitrogen 3) nickel B. P 1) potassium 2) phogiston3) phosphorus C. Ag 1) silver 2) agean3) gold Learning Check

24 24 The Periodic Table Elements

25 25 The periodic table arranges elements according to similar properties. Periodic Table

26 26 On the periodic table, each vertical column is called a group of elements. A group contains elements with similar chemical and physical properties. Each group is identified by a group number at the top of the column. The representative elements have group numbers of 1A – 8A. The transition element Groups on the Periodic Table

27 27 Groups and Group Numbers

28 28 Numbering Groups One numbering system for groups assigns the letter A to the representative elements and the letter B to the transition elements. Another system assigns the numbers 1-18 to the columns across the periodic table.

29 29 Group Numbers Group numbers

30 30 Several groups of representative elements are classified by name. Group 1AAlkali Metals Group 2AAlkaline Earth Metals Group 7A Halogens Group 8ANoble Gases Representative Elements

31 31 Period Group Alkali Metal Noble Gas Halogen Alkali Earth Metal 2.4

32 32 Group 1A, the alkali metals, includes sodium, lithium, and potassium. Group 7A, the halogens, includes chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Representative Elements

33 33 On the periodic table, each horizontal row is called a period. A period is identified by a number such as 1, 2, 3, or 4. Periods 2-7 include representative elements and transition elements. Periods on the Periodic Table

34 34 Identify the element described by the following: A. Element in Group 7A, Period 4 1) Br2) Cl3) Mn B. Element in Group 2A, Period 3 1) beryllium2) magnesium 3) boron Learning Check

35 35 A. Group 7A, Period 4 1) Br B. Group 2A, Period 3 2) magnesium Solution

36 36 NONMETALS METALOIDS Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids METALS

37 37  Metals  Are located to the left of the heavy line.  Are shiny, ductile, and good conductors.  Metalloids  Are elements along the heavy line.  Have properties of both metals and nonmetals.  Nonmetals  Are located to the right of the heavy line.  Are dull, brittle, poor conductors, and good insulators. Metals and Nonmetals

38 38 Comparing A Metal, Metalloid, and Nonmetal

39 39 Identify each of the following elements as 1) metal 2) nonmetal 3) metalloid A. sodium____ B. chlorine____ C. silicon ____ D. iron____ E. carbon____ Learning Check

40 40 Identify each of the following elements as 1) metal 2) nonmetal 3) metalloid A. sodium1 metal B. chlorine2 nonmetal C. silicon 3 metalloid D. iron1 metal E. carbon2 nonmetal Solution

41 41 Match the elements to the description: A. Metals in Group 4A 1) Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, Sn B. Nonmetals in Group 5A 1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P 3) N, P, As, Sb C. Metalloids in Group 4A 1) C, Si, Ge, 2) Si, Ge 3) Si, Ge, Sn, Pb Learning Check

42 42 Match the elements to the description: A. Metals in Group 4A 1) Sn, Pb B. Nonmetals in Group 5A 2) N, P C. Metalloids in Group 4A 2) Si, Ge Solution

43 43 Chapter Summary Chemistry is the study of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Physical change does not alter the chemical makeup of a substance. Change is reversible. Chemical change alters chemical makeup of a substance. Change is irreversible. Pure substances have uniform chemical composition and properties.

44 44 Chapter Summary Contd. Composition and properties of a mixture may vary. Substance that can be broken down into simpler substances is a chemical compound. Substance that can not be broken down chemically into simpler substances is known as an element. Elements are represented by one or two letter symbols. First letter is always capitalized and the second letter is always a lower case.

45 45 Chapter Summary Contd. Chemical Formula is a notation for chemical compound to show how many atoms of each element are present. Periodic Table is a representation of 113 elements in a tabular format. Elements are roughly divided into 3 groups Metals Nonmetals Metalloids

46 46 End of Chapter 1


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