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Welcome Stranger, 78 kg Au Nugget Found (1869) Reading for Tuesday: Chapter 5 sections 1-5 Reading for Tuesday: Chapter 5 sections 1-5 Homework 3.2 – Due.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome Stranger, 78 kg Au Nugget Found (1869) Reading for Tuesday: Chapter 5 sections 1-5 Reading for Tuesday: Chapter 5 sections 1-5 Homework 3.2 – Due."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome Stranger, 78 kg Au Nugget Found (1869) Reading for Tuesday: Chapter 5 sections 1-5 Reading for Tuesday: Chapter 5 sections 1-5 Homework 3.2 – Due Tuesday 2/10/15 Homework 3.2 – Due Tuesday 2/10/15 Chapter 3 #s even, 55, 56, 59, even, 80, 86, 88, 94, 96 Chapter 3 #s even, 55, 56, 59, even, 80, 86, 88, 94, 96 Homework 4 – Due Thursday 2/12/15 Homework 4 – Due Thursday 2/12/15 Chapter 4 #'s 2-22 (even), 28, 30, 35, 36, 38, 40, 44, 46, 52, 54, 59, 60, 66 (only assignment from chapter 4) Chapter 4 #'s 2-22 (even), 28, 30, 35, 36, 38, 40, 44, 46, 52, 54, 59, 60, 66 (only assignment from chapter 4) Lab Next Week: Lab Next Week: Exp 3 Exp 3 Wet lab Wet lab Pre Lab Pre Lab

2 Specific Heat When calories were added to a piece of gold, its temperature rose from 23.0 o C to 89.7 o C. What was the mass of the gold? (S.H. = J/g o C)

3 The study of the properties and transformations of matter. Chemistry: The study of the properties and transformations of matter. A characteristic that can be used to describe a substance. Substances have both physical and chemical properties. Property: A characteristic that can be used to describe a substance. Substances have both physical and chemical properties. A change in the properties of matter with time. There are physical changes and chemical changes. Transformations: A change in the properties of matter with time. There are physical changes and chemical changes. Anything that has mass and occupies space – things you can see, touch, taste, or smell. Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies space – things you can see, touch, taste, or smell.

4 Gas Indefinite (variable) shape Indefinite (variable) volume Highly compressible HUGE amounts of space Highly disordered!! Lots of KINETIC energy Low relative density

5 CONDENSATION!!!!!

6 Liquid Indefinite (variable) shape Definite (fixed) volume NOT compressible Very little space between More ordered than gas Moderate KINETIC energy High relative density

7 FREEZING!!!!!

8 Solid Definite (fixed) shape Definite (fixed) volume NOT compressible Tightly packed Well ordered (organized) Little KINETIC energy High relative density

9 Substances have both physical and chemical properties. Density, color, and melting point are physical properties of matter. Observing a physical property can be done without altering the makeup of a substance. Physical Properties: Density, color, and melting point are physical properties of matter. Observing a physical property can be done without altering the makeup of a substance.

10 Does not alter the chemical makeup of a substance. Physical Change: Does not alter the chemical makeup of a substance.  Chemical reactivity is unchanged.  Changes in state, changes in particle size, and the formation / separation of mixtures are all examples of physical change.  Melting of ice to form liquid water is a physical change. In this case only a change in form takes place. The chemical makeup of the substance remains H 2 O.

11 Phase Transitions!! solidliquidgas meltingboiling freezingcondensation sublimation deposition ADD ENERGY REMOVE ENERGY

12 Substances have both physical and chemical properties. Chemical composition, what matter is made of, and chemical reactivity, how matter behaves, are chemical properties. Observing a chemical property alters the substance. Chemical Properties: Chemical composition, what matter is made of, and chemical reactivity, how matter behaves, are chemical properties. Observing a chemical property alters the substance.

13   Chemical Change:  Alters the makeup of a substance.  Reactivity changes with the formation of new substances.  Heat, light, or electrical energy is often emitted or absorbed.   Potassium reacting with water is an example of a chemical change.

14 Classification of Matter ► Matter that is constant in its chemical composition and properties. ►Pure Substance: Matter that is constant in its chemical composition and properties. ► A blend of two or more pure substances in any ratio each retaining their identity. ►Mixture: A blend of two or more pure substances in any ratio each retaining their identity. ►Physical changes can separate mixtures into one or more pure substances.

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17 Element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by chemical means. A pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by chemical means. ice cream  sugar  CO 2  carbon chemical changesphysical changes mixture pure substances compound element

18 Each element has its own unique symbol. One or two letter symbols are used to represent elements.. Examples: C, Cr, P, Pb Each element has its own unique symbol. One or two letter symbols are used to represent elements. The first letter is always capitalized and the second letter is always a lower case. Examples: C, Cr, P, Pb Most are “easy” to remember. Most are “easy” to remember. ‘H’ for hydrogen, ‘O’ for oxygen, ‘N’ for nitrogen ‘H’ for hydrogen, ‘O’ for oxygen, ‘N’ for nitrogen Some are more difficult to learn. ‘Na’ for sodium (from its Latin name Natrium) ‘Pb’ for lead (from its Latin name Plumbum) ‘Na’ for sodium (from its Latin name Natrium) ‘Pb’ for lead (from its Latin name Plumbum)

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20 Pure Substances Two or more elements combined chemically in specific ratios to form a pure substance. Chemical Compounds: Two or more elements combined chemically in specific ratios to form a pure substance. Water = H 2 O Methanol = CH 3 OH Nitroglycerine = C 3 H 5 (NO 3 ) 3

21 Chemical Formula: A notation for a chemical compound using symbols and. When no subscript is given for an element a subscript of ‘1’ is “understood”. Chemical Formula: A notation for a chemical compound using symbols and subscripts to show how many atoms of each element are present. When no subscript is given for an element a subscript of ‘1’ is “understood”.

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23 Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixture: A mixture of matter in which the properties change from sample to sample. Hetero change Sand and sugar Quartz and gold

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25 Mixtures Homogeneous Mixture: A mixture of matter in which the properties remain constant from sample to sample. Homo constant Salt water Kool-Aid Brass

26 PeriodicTableof theElements Periodic: Having or marked by repeating patterns Table: An arrangement of words, numbers, or symbols, or combinations of them, as in parallel columns, to exhibit a set of facts or relations in a definite, compact, and comprehensive form Elements: A substance that cannot be broke down into simpler substances by chemical means

27 : 90 of the 114 elements are metals. They appear on the left side of the Periodic Table. Metals: 90 of the 114 elements are metals. They appear on the left side of the Periodic Table.  Some common properties of metals are:  Solid at room temperature  (except mercury which is a liquid)  Good conductor of heat and electricity  Lustrous on fresh surfaces  Malleable and ductile

28 Metals

29 Metals: (a) Gold is very unreactive and is used primarily in jewelry and in electronic components. (b) Zinc, an essential nutrient, is used in the manufacture of brass, roofing materials, and batteries. (c) Copper is widely used in electrical wiring, in water pipes, and in coins.

30 : Appear on the right side of the Periodic Table. 17 elements are nonmetals. Nonmetals: Appear on the right side of the Periodic Table. 17 elements are nonmetals. Eleven are gases at room temperature (H, N, O, F, Ne, etc.) Eleven are gases at room temperature (H, N, O, F, Ne, etc.) Five are solids (C, P, S, Se, I) Five are solids (C, P, S, Se, I) One is a liquid (Br). One is a liquid (Br). Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity.

31 Non-Metals

32 Nonmetals: (a) Nitrogen constitutes almost 80% of air and is a colorless gas at room temperature. (b) Sulfur, a yellow solid, is found in large underground deposits in Texas and Louisiana. (c) Iodine crystals.

33  Seven elements are metalloids.  Metalloids: Seven elements are metalloids.  Their properties are between those of metals and nonmetals.  Metalloids are semiconductors and are important to the electronics industry.

34 Metalloids

35   Metalloids:  (a) Boron  (b) Silicon

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