2Matter Matter is any substance that has mass and occupies volume. Matter exists in one of three physical state:Solid StateLiquid StateGaseous State
3Gaseous StateIn a gas, the particles of matter are far apart and uniformly distributed throughout the container.Gases have an indefinite shape and assume the shape of their container.Gases can be compressed and have an indefinite volume.Gases have the most energy of the three states of matter.
4Liquid StateIn a liquid, the particles of matter are loosely packed and are free to move past one another.Liquids have an indefinite shape and assume the shape of their container.Liquids cannot be compressed and have a definite volume.Liquids have less energy than gases but more energy than solids.
5Solid StateIn a solid, the particles of matter are tightly packed together.Solids have a definite, fixed shape.Solids cannot be compressed and have a definite volume.Solids have the least energy of the three states of matter.
6States of Matter Summary Gases have the most energy of the three states of matter.Liquids have less energy than gases but more energy than solids.Solids have the least energy of the three states of matter.
7Changes of StateMost substances can exist as either a solid, liquid, or gas.Water exists as a solid below 0°C; as a liquid between 0°C and 100°C; and as a gas above 100°C.A substance can change physical states as the temperature changes.
8Solid/Liquid Phase Changes When a solid changes to a liquid, the phase change is called melting.A substance melts as the temperature increases.When a liquid changes to a solid, the phase change is called freezing.A substance freezes as the temperature decreases.
9Liquid/Gas Phase Changes When a liquid changes to a gas, the phase change is called vaporization.A substance vaporizes as the temperature increases.When a gas changes to a liquid, the phase change is called condensation.A substance condenses as the temperature decreases.
10Figure:Title:Vaporization and CondensationCaption:Reddish-brown bromine liquid vaporizes to a gas and condenses to a liquid in the beaker.Notes:note that the bromine molecules stay intact when they vaporize and condense.
11Solid/Gas Phase Changes When a solid changes directly to a gas, the phase change is called sublimation.A substance sublimes as the temperature increases.When a gas changes directly to a solid, the phase change is called deposition.A substance undergoes deposition as the temperature decreases.
12Figure:Title:Sublimation and DepositionCaption:Purple iodine crystals in the beaker sublime directly to a gas, and the vapor deposits directly as a solid on the upper surface of the beaker.Notes:note that the iodine molecules stay intact when they sublime and deposit.
14Classifications of Matter Matter can be divided into two classes:MixturesPure SubstancesMixtures are composed of more than one substance and can be physically separated into its component substances.Pure substances are composed of only one substance and cannot be physically separated.
15Mixtures There are two types of mixtures: Homogeneous MixturesHeterogeneous MixturesHomogeneous mixtures have uniform properties throughoutSaltwater is a homogeneous mixtureHeterogeneous mixtures do not have uniform properties throughoutSand and water is a heterogeneous mixture
16Pure Substances There are two types of pure substances: CompoundsElementsCompounds can be chemically separated into individual elements.Water is a compound that can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen.An element cannot be broken down further by chemical reactions.
17Figure: UNTitle:SubstancesCaption:Elements, compounds, homogeneous mixtures, and heterogeneous mixtures.Notes:This diagram is part of Ch. 4, Key Concept #3.
18Occurrence of the Elements There are over 100 elements that occur in nature. 81 of those elements are stable.Only 10 elements account for 95% of the mass of the Earth’s crust:
19Elements in the Human Body Oxygen is the most common element in both the Earth’s crust and in the Human body.While silicon is the second-most abundant element in the crust, carbon is the second most abundant in the body.
20Names of the Elements Each element has a unique name. Names have several origins:Hydrogen is derived from GreekCarbon is derived from LatinScandium is named for ScandinaviaNobelium is named for Alfred Nobel.
21Element Symbols Each element is abbreviated using a chemical symbol. The symbols are 1 or 2 letters long.Most of the time, the symbol is derived from the name of the element.C is the symbol for carbonCd is the symbol for cadmiumWhen a symbol has a two letter symbol, the first is capitalized and the second is lower case.
22Other Element SymbolsFor some elements, the chemical symbol is derived from the original Latin name.Gold – AuSodium – NaSilver – AgAntimony – SbCopper – CuTin – SnMercury – HgIron – FePotassium – KTungsten – W
23Figure: 04-T03Title:Table 4.3Caption:Names and Symbols of Selected ElementsNotes:Many of the most common and important elements are listed in this table.
24Types of ElementsElements can be divided into three classes:MetalsNonmetalsSemimetals or metalloidsSemimetals have properties midway between those of metals and nonmetals
25Properties of MetalsMetals are typically solids with high melting points and high densities and have a bright, metallic luster.Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.Metals can be hammered into thin sheets and are said to be malleable.Metals can be drawn into fine wires and are said to be ductile.
26Properties of Nonmetals Nonmetals typically have low melting points and low densities and have a dull appearance.Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity.Nonmetals are not malleable or ductile and crush into a powder when hammered.11 nonmetals occur naturally in the gaseous state.
27Figure: 04-T04Title:Table 4.4Caption:General Characteristics of Metals and Nonmetals*Notes:note that there are exceptions to the general characteristics.
28Figure: 04-T05Title:Table 4.5Caption:Physical Properties of Sodium, Chlorine, and Sodium Chloride at Normal Conditions (25° C and 1.00 atm)Notes:sodium and chlorine have very different physical and chemical properties than each other and than sodium chloride.
29Periodic Table of the Elements Each element is assigned a number to identify it. It is called the atomic number.Hydrogen is 1, Helium is 2, up to Uranium which is 92.The elements are arranged by atomic number on the periodic table.
33Physical & Chemical Properties A physical property is a characteristic of a pure substance that we can observe without changing its composition.Physical properties include appearance, melting and boiling point, density, conductivity, and physical stateA chemical property describes the chemical reactions of a pure substance.
34Chemical & Physical Changes A physical change is a change where the chemical composition of the substance is not changed.These include changes in physical state or shape of a pure substance.A chemical change is a chemical reaction.The composition of the substances changes during a chemical change.
35Evidence of a Chemical Change Gas release (bubbles).Light or release of heat energy.Formation of a precipitate.A permanent color change.
36Conservation of MassAntoine Lavoisier found that the mass of substances before a chemical change was always equal to the mass of substances after a chemical change.This is the law of conservation of mass.Matter is not created or destroyed in physical or chemical processes.
37Figure: 04-11Caption:Sodium is a shiny metal, chlorine is a yellow gas. Sodium chloride is a white crystalline solid (table salt).Notes:This is part 1 of a 2 part diagram showing the difference between sodium, chlorine, and sodium chloride.
38Potential and Kinetic Energy Potential energy, PE, is stored energy; it results from position or composition.Kinetic energy, KE, is the energy matter has as a result of motion.Energy can be converted between the two types.A boulder at the top of the hill has potential energy; if you push it down the hill, the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy.
39KE, Temperature, & StateAll substances have kinetic energy no matter what physical state they are in.Solids have the lowest kinetic energy, and gases have the greatest kinetic energy.As you increase the temperature of a substance, its kinetic energy increases.
40Figure: 04-14Title:Energy and Physical StateCaption:The energy of individual water molecules increases as the water is heated.Notes:This is part 1 of a 3 part diagram. Solid water molecules are shown in a crystalline lattice.
41Figure: 04-15Title:Conservation of EnergyCaption:The physical change of state from water to steam, and the reverse process, involve the same amount of energy.Notes:Energy is conserved: The energy absorbed by the water as it vaporizes is equal to the energy released by the water as it condenses.
42Conservation of Energy Just like matter, energy cannot be created or destroyed but it can converted from one form to another.This is the law of conservation of energy.There are six forms of energy: heat, light, electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear.
43Energy and Chemical Change In a chemical change, energy is transformed from one form to another. For example:
44Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy Mass and energy are related by Einstein’s theory of relativity, E = mc2.Mass and energy can be interchanged.The law of conservation of mass and energy states that the total mass and energy of the universe is constant.
46DistillationSeparates homogeneous mixture on the basis of differences in boiling point.
47FiltrationSeparates solid substances from liquids and solutions.
48ChromatographySeparates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent.
49Conclusions Matter exists in three physical states: SolidLiquidGasSubstances can be converted between the three states.Substances can be mixtures or pure substances.
50Conclusions Continued Pure substances can be either compounds or elements.The elements are arranged in the periodic table.Each element has a name and a 1 or 2 letter symbol.Elements are classified as either metals, nonmetals, or semimetals.
51Conclusions Continued A physical change is a change in physical state or shape.A chemical change is a change in the chemical composition of a substance.Both mass and energy are conserved in chemical and physical changes.
52Figure: 04-02Title:Classification of MatterCaption:Matter is classified as a mixture (heterogeneous, homogeneous) or a substance (compound, element).Notes:Each type of matter defines a certain complexity. Elements are combined to form compounds. Compounds are combined with elements to form mixtures. Uneven mixtures are heterogeneous.